The management of common pool resources and publicly-owned areas is fraught with difficulty. This book explores the long, complex, and frequently contentious history of public lands management in the United States in order to draw lessons for the emerging field of marine spatial planning (MSP).
The author first establishes that these two seemingly different settings are in fact remarkably similar, drawing on established theories of policy analysis. The work then examines the management of US National Forests over the past 120 years, including three place-based case studies, to discover recurring themes. The analysis shows how different management approaches evolved over time in response to changing laws and cultural norms, producing outcomes favored by different constituencies. This history also reveals the ambiguities and contradictions inherent in multiple-use management of any public space. Next, the book analyzes recent efforts to advance MSP, both in the US and globally, showing how they mirror past experiences in National Forest management, including similar disagreements among stakeholders.
In conclusion the author suggests how those within ocean-related sectors – government, academia, industry, and environmental groups – might achieve their individual and collective goals more effectively based on lessons from the public lands setting.
Table of Contents
2. Public Land/Public Ocean
3. Is the Exclusive Economic Zone like Public Lands?
4. The Story of the U.S. National Forest System
5. Case Study #1: Pacific Northwest Forests
6. Case Study #2: An Eastern Forest
7. Learning from Forest Experiences
8. Back at the Shore: Lessons for the Ocean Community
Morgan Gopnik is an Environmental Policy Consultant, based in Washington DC, USA, with over 20 years of professional experience in ocean policy. Recent clients include the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the American Petroleum Institute, NOAA’s Coastal Services Center, the Foundation for Ocean Renewables, and the Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions at Duke University, North Carolina, among others. She was previously the Director of the Ocean Studies Board at the National Academy of Sciences and Senior Adviser to the US Commission on Ocean Policy. Dr. Gopnik holds a PhD from Duke University.
"Morgan Gopnik presents an engaging analysis and balanced view of the tensions that challenge the practice of marine spatial planning, while drawing compelling parallels to the resolution of similarly contentious issues in the realm of public lands management. From the Forest to the Sea illustrates the importance of drawing on past lessons to inform a more rational and durable approach to managing our ocean resource for the future. An important and timely work." – Deerin Babb-Brott, Senior Partner, SeaPlan, USA and former Director of the White House National Ocean Council.
"Morgan Gopnik brings her unique and diverse perspectives to the slippery issue of ocean ecosystem management. Although marine spatial planning is new, she shows that we can rely on a century’s experience in public lands management to probe the abyss. Gopnik argues that sustainability, for marine ecosystems and the communities that depend upon them, requires broad engagement and dialog rather than pernicious advocacy. Gopnik’s vision suggests a possible win-win for oceans and marine economies that we should all take very seriously – if we truly want a brighter future for the ocean." – Larry Crowder, Science Director, Center for Ocean Solutions, Professor of Biology, Hopkins Marine Station and Senior Fellow, Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment.
"Morgan Gopnik takes her readers on a voyage through the 100-year history of US public lands management, focusing on forest management, pointing out insights and lessons that can be used by a growing community interested in effectively managing the multiple uses of another public resource – the ocean space of nations. A must read for everyone in the international marine planning community." – Charles Ehler, consultant to UNESCO’s Marine Spatial Management Initiative and former senior executive at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
"A growing number of states and regions in the United States are utilizing marine spatial planning as a tool to manage their coastal and offshore waters. As decision-makers, businesses, and community stakeholders work together to find holistic solutions for sustainable ocean use and a healthy ecosystem, Morgan Gopnik’s research provides an insightful tour of what has gone before. Ocean planning may be relatively new in the United States, but planning for sustainable use of public resources is not, and the lessons learned in over a century of public land management provide valuable advice for planning in our oceans." – Sandra T. Whitehouse, Senior Policy Advisor to Ocean Conservancy, USA.