Fundamentals of Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry: Sustainable Science, Fourth Edition, 4th Edition (Hardback) book cover

Fundamentals of Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry

Sustainable Science, Fourth Edition, 4th Edition

By Stanley E. Manahan

CRC Press

614 pages | 382 B/W Illus.

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Fundamentals of Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry: Sustainable Science, Fourth Edition covers university-level environmental chemistry, with toxicological chemistry integrated throughout the book. This new edition of a bestseller provides an updated text with an increased emphasis on sustainability and green chemistry. It is organized based on the five spheres of Earth’s environment: (1) the hydrosphere (water), (2) the atmosphere (air), (3) the geosphere (solid Earth), (4) the biosphere (life), and (5) the anthrosphere (the part of the environment made and used by humans).

The first chapter defines environmental chemistry and each of the five environmental spheres. The second chapter presents the basics of toxicological chemistry and its relationship to environmental chemistry. Subsequent chapters are grouped by sphere, beginning with the hydrosphere and its environmental chemistry, water pollution, sustainability, and water as nature’s most renewable resource. Chapters then describe the atmosphere, its structure and importance for protecting life on Earth, air pollutants, and the sustainability of atmospheric quality. The author explains the nature of the geosphere and discusses soil for growing food as well as geosphere sustainability. He also describes the biosphere and its sustainability.

The final sphere described is the anthrosphere. The text explains human influence on the environment, including climate, pollution in and by the anthrosphere, and means of sustaining this sphere. It also discusses renewable, nonpolluting energy and introduces workplace monitoring. For readers needing additional basic chemistry background, the book includes two chapters on general chemistry and organic chemistry. This updated edition includes three new chapters, new examples and figures, and many new homework problems.

Table of Contents

Environmental Chemistry and the Five Spheres of the Environment

What Is Environmental Chemistry?

Environmental Relationships in Environmental Chemistry

Environmental Spheres and Biogeochemical Cycles

Earth’s Natural Capital

Environmental Chemistry and Green Chemistry

As We Enter into the Anthropocene

Questions and Problems

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Fundamentals of Biochemistry and Toxicological Chemistry

Life Chemical Processes

Biochemistry and the Cell



Lipids: Fats, Oils, and Hormones

Nucleic Acids


Biochemical Processes in Metabolism

Toxic Substances, Toxicology, and Toxicological Chemistry

Toxicological Chemistry

Kinetic Phase of Xenobiotic Metabolism

Dynamic Phase of Toxicant Action

Mutagenesis and Carcinogenesis

Developmental Effects and Teratogenesis

Toxic Effects on the Immune System

Damage to the Endocrine System

Health Hazards of Toxic Substances

Structure–Activity Relationships in Toxicological Chemistry

Toxicological Chemistry and Ecotoxicology

Toxic Agents That May Be Used in Terrorist Attacks

Questions and Problems

Supplementary References

Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry of the Hydrosphere

H2O: Simple Formula, Remarkable Molecule


Occurrence of Water

Water Supply and Availability

Life and Its Influence on Environmental Chemistry in the Hydrosphere

Environmental Chemistry of the Hydrosphere

Acid-Base Phenomena in the Hydrosphere

Solubility and Phase Interactions


Metal Ions in Water

Complexation and Speciation of Metals

Toxicological Chemistry in the Hydrosphere

Chemical Interactions with Organisms in the Hydrosphere

Biodegradation in the Hydrosphere

Questions and Problems

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Pollution of the Hydrosphere

Nature and Types of Water Pollutants

Elemental Pollutants

Heavy Metals


Organically Bound Metals

Inorganic Species as Water Pollutants

Algal Nutrients and Eutrophication

Acidity, Alkalinity, and Salinity

Oxygen, Oxidants, and Reductants

Organic Pollutants

Pesticides in Water

Polychlorinated Biphenyls

Emerging Water Pollutants, Pharmaceuticals, and Household Wastes

Radionuclides in the Aquatic Environment

Toxicological Chemistry and Water Pollution

Questions and Problems

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Sustaining the Hydrosphere

More Important than Oil

Greening of Water: Purification before and after Use

Municipal Water Treatment

Treatment of Water for Industrial Use

Wastewater Treatment

Removal of Solids

Removal of Calcium and Other Metals

Removal of Dissolved Organics

Removal of Dissolved Inorganics

Membrane Processes and Reverse Osmosis for Water Purification

Water Disinfection

Restoration of Wastewater Quality

Natural Water Purification Processes

Sludges and Residues from Water Treatment

Water, the Greenest Substance on Earth: Reuse and Recycling

Water Conservation

Questions and Problems

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry of the Atmosphere

Atmosphere: Air to Breathe and Much More

Regions of the Atmosphere

Atmospheric Composition

Natural Capital of the Atmosphere

Energy and Mass Transfer in the Atmosphere

Meteorology, Weather, and Climate

Atmospheric Inversions and Atmospheric Chemical Phenomena

Climate, Microclimate, and Microatmosphere

Atmospheric Chemistry and Photochemical Reactions

Atmospheric Oxygen

Atmospheric Nitrogen

Atmospheric Water

Atmospheric Particles

Questions and Problems

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Pollution of the Atmosphere

Pollution of the Atmosphere and Air Quality

Pollutant Particles in the Atmosphere

Inorganic Gas Pollutants

Nitrogen Oxide Air Pollutants

Sulfur Dioxide Air Pollution

Acid–Base Reactions in the Atmosphere and Acid Rain

Organic Air Pollutants

Photochemical Smog

Chlorofluorocarbons and Stratospheric Ozone Depletion

Indoor Air Pollution and the Microatmosphere

Questions and Problems

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Sustaining the Atmosphere: Blue Skies for a Green Earth

Preserving the Atmosphere

Greatest Threat: Global Climate Warming

Dealing with Global Climate Change

Control of Particle Emissions

Control of Carbon Monoxide Emissions

Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions

Control of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions

Control of Hydrocarbon Emissions and Photochemical Smog

Biological Control of Air Pollution

Controlling Acid Rain

Limiting Stratospheric Ozone Depletion

Questions and Problems

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry of the Geosphere


Chemical Composition of the Geosphere and Geochemistry

Geosphere as a Source of Natural Capital

Environmental Hazards of the Geosphere

Water in and on the Geosphere

Anthrospheric Influences on the Geosphere

Geosphere as a Waste Repository

Questions and Problems

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Soil: A Critical Part of the Geosphere

Have You Thanked a Clod Today?

Plant Nutrients and Fertilizers in Soil

Soil and Plants Related to Wastes and Pollutants

Soil Loss: Desertification and Deforestation

Toxicological and Public Health Aspects of Soil

Toxicological Considerations in Livestock Production

Questions and Problems

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Sustaining the Geosphere

Managing the Geosphere for Sustainability

Sustaining the Geosphere in the Face of Natural Hazards

Sustainable Development on the Geosphere’s Surface

Digging in the Dirt

Extraction of Materials from Earth

Sustainable Utilization of Geospheric Mineral Resources

Toxicological Implications of Mineral Mining and Processing

Sustaining the Geosphere to Manage Water

Waste Disposal and the Geosphere

Derelict Lands and Brownfields

Sustaining Soil

Questions and Problems

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry of the Biosphere

Life and the Biosphere

Organisms and Sustainable Science and Technology

Life Systems

Metabolism and Control in Organisms

Reproduction and Inherited Traits

Stability and Equilibrium of the Biosphere

DNA and the Human Genome

Biological Interaction with Environmental Chemicals

Effects of the Anthrosphere on the Biosphere

Questions and Problems

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Sustaining the Biosphere and Its Natural Capital

Keeping Life Alive

Natural Capital of the Biosphere

Genetic Engineering

Role of Human Activities in Preserving and Enhancing the Biosphere

Preserving the Biosphere by Preserving the Atmosphere

Preserving the Biosphere by Preserving the Hydrosphere

Preserving the Biosphere by Preserving the Geosphere

Questions and Problems

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry of the Anthrosphere


Industrial Ecology and Industrial Ecosystems

Metabolic Processes in Industrial Ecosystems

Life Cycles in Industrial Ecosystems

Kinds of Products

Environmental Impacts of the Anthrosphere

Green Chemistry and the Anthrosphere

Predicting and Reducing Hazards with Green Chemistry

Atom Economy and the E Factor in Green Chemistry

Catalysts and Catalysis in Green Chemistry

Biocatalysis with Enzymes

Energizing Chemical Reactions and Process Intensification

Solvents and Alternate Reaction Media

Feedstocks and Reagents

Anthrosphere and Occupational Health

Questions and Problems

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Anthrosphere, Pollution, and Wastes

Wastes from the Anthrosphere

Classification of Hazardous Substances and Wastes

Sources of Wastes

Flammable and Combustible Substances

Reactive Substances

Corrosive Substances

Toxic Substances

Physical Forms and Segregation of Wastes

Environmental Chemistry of Hazardous Wastes

Transport, Effects, and Fates of Hazardous Wastes

Hazardous Wastes and the Anthrosphere

Hazardous Wastes in the Geosphere

Hazardous Wastes in the Hydrosphere

Hazardous Wastes in the Atmosphere

Hazardous Wastes in the Biosphere

Hazardous Substances and Environmental Health and Safety

Questions and Problems

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Industrial Ecology and Green Chemistry for Sustainable Management of the Anthrosphere

Managing the Anthrosphere for Sustainability

Feeding the Anthrosphere

Key Feedstock: Abundant Elemental Hydrogen from Sustainable Sources

Feedstocks from the Geosphere

Biological Feedstocks

Monosaccharide Feedstocks: Glucose and Fructose

Hydrocarbons and Similar Materials from Sugars



Biosynthesis of Chemicals

Direct Biosynthesis of Polymers

Biorefineries and Biomass Utilization

Green Chemistry and Industrial Ecology in Waste Management


Hazardous Waste Treatment Processes

Methods of Physical Treatment

Chemical Treatment

Photolytic Reactions

Thermal Treatment Methods

Biodegradation of Hazardous Wastes

Preparation of Wastes for Disposal

Ultimate Disposal of Wastes

Leachate and Gas Emissions

In Situ Treatment of Disposed Hazardous Wastes

Questions and Problems

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Sustainable Energy: The Key to Everything

Energy Problem

Nature of Energy

Sustainable Energy: Away from the Sun and Back Again

Sources of Energy Used in the Anthrosphere: Present and Future

Energy Devices and Conversions

Green Technology and Energy Conversion Efficiency

Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy Sources

Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Natural Gas Liquids

Natural Gas


Carbon Sequestration for Fossil Fuel Utilization

Great Plains Synfuels Plant: Industrial Ecology in Practice to Produce Energy and Chemicals

Nuclear Energy

Geothermal Energy

Sun: An Ideal, Renewable Energy Source

Energy From Earth’s Two Great Fluids in Motion

Biomass Energy: An Overview of Biofuels and Their Resources

Hydrogen as a Means to Store and Utilize Energy

Combined Power Cycles

Environmental Health Aspects of Energy Production and Utilization

Questions and Problems

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Analytical Chemistry and Industrial Hygiene

Analytical Chemistry

Industrial Hygiene and Analytical Chemistry

Categories of Workplace Hazards

Chemical Hazards

Workplace Sampling and Personal Monitoring

Chemical Analysis Process

Major Categories of Chemical Analysis

Error and Treatment of Data

Gravimetric Analysis

Volumetric Analysis: Titration

Spectrophotometric Methods of Analysis

Electrochemical Methods of Analysis


Mass Spectrometry

Automated Analyses

Immunoassay Screening

Total Organic Carbon in Water

Measurement of Radioactivity in Water

Analysis of Wastes and Solids

Atmospheric Monitoring

Analysis of Biological Materials and Xenobiotics

Questions and Problems

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Fundamentals of Chemistry

Science of Matter


Chemical Bonding

Chemical Reactions and Equations


Questions and Problems

Literature Cited

Supplementary References

Organic Chemistry

Organic Chemistry


Using Lines to Show Structural Formulas

Functional Groups

Giant Molecules from Small Organic Molecules

Questions and Problems

Supplementary References


About the Author

Stanley E. Manahan is a professor emeritus of chemistry at the University of Missouri-Columbia, where he has been on the faculty since 1965. He earned his AB in chemistry from Emporia State University in Kansas in 1960 and his Ph.D. in analytical chemistry from the University of Kansas in 1965. Since 1968, his primary research and professional activities have been in environmental chemistry, with recent emphasis on hazardous waste treatment. His latest research involves the gasification of wastes and sewage sludge and crop by-product biomass for energy production.

Dr. Manahan has taught courses on environmental chemistry, hazardous wastes, toxicological chemistry, and analytical chemistry and has lectured on these topics throughout the United States as an American Chemical Society Local Sections tour speaker and in a number of countries, including France, Italy, Austria, Japan, Mexico, and Venezuela. He has written books on environmental chemistry, green chemistry, water chemistry, energy, general chemistry, environmental geology, the Anthropocene, climate change, environmental science, hazardous wastes and industrial ecology, toxicological chemistry, applied chemistry, and quantitative chemical analysis. Dr. Manahan is the author or coauthor of approximately 90 research articles.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Chemistry / General
SCIENCE / Chemistry / Industrial & Technical
SCIENCE / Environmental Science