Fundamentals of Solid-State Lighting: LEDs, OLEDs, and Their Applications in Illumination and Displays, 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Fundamentals of Solid-State Lighting

LEDs, OLEDs, and Their Applications in Illumination and Displays, 1st Edition

By Vinod Kumar Khanna

CRC Press

604 pages | 249 B/W Illus.

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Description

Compared to traditional electrical filaments, arc lamps, and fluorescent lamps, solid-state lighting offers higher efficiency, reliability, and environmentally friendly technology. LED / solid-state lighting is poised to take over conventional lighting due to cost savings—there is pretty much no debate about this. In response to the recent activity in this field, Fundamentals of Solid-State Lighting: LEDs, OLEDs, and Their Applications in Illumination and Displays covers a range of solid-state devices, technologies, and materials used for lighting and displays. It also examines auxiliary but critical requirements of efficient applications, such as modeling, thermal management, reliability, and smart lighting.

The book discusses performance metrics of LEDs such as efficiency, efficacy, current–voltage characteristics, optical parameters like spectral distribution, color temperature, and beam angle before moving on to luminescence theory, injection luminescence, radiative and non-radiative recombination mechanisms, recombination rates, carrier lifetimes, and related topics. This lays down the groundwork for understanding LED operation. The book then discusses energy gaps, light emission, semiconductor material, special equipment, and laboratory facilities. It also covers production and applications of high-brightness LEDs (HBLEDs) and organic LEDs (OLEDs).

LEDs represent the landmark development in lighting since the invention of electric lighting, allowing us to create unique, low-energy lighting solutions, not to talk about their minor maintenance expenses. The rapid strides of LED lighting technology over the last few years have changed the dynamics of the global lighting market, and LEDs are expected to be the mainstream light source in the near future. In a nutshell, the book traces the advances in LEDs, OLEDs, and their applications, and presents an up-to-date and analytical perspective of the scenario for audiences of different backgrounds and interests.

Table of Contents

History and Basics of Lighting

Chronological History of Lighting

Learning Objectives

How Early Man Looked at the "Sun"

The Need for Artificial Light Sources

First Steps in the Evolution of Artificial Lighting

The First Solid-State Lighting Device

The First Practical Electrical Lighting Device

The Incandescent Filament Lamp

Mercury and Sodium Vapor Lamps

The Fluorescent Lamp

The Compact Fluorescent Lamp

Revolution in the World of Lighting: Advent of Light-Emitting Diodes

Birth of the First LED and the Initial Stages of LED Development

The Father of the LED: Holonyak Jr.

The Post-1962 Developments

Haitz’s Law

AlGaAs LEDs Grown on GaAs Substrates

AlGaInP LEDs on GaAs Substrates

Acquisition of Generated Light

The AlInGaN Material System: Blue and White LEDs

High-Power LEDs

LEDs and Materials Science

The Omnipresent Elements: Ga, N, and As

Further Refinements

Discussion and Conclusions

References

Review Exercises

Nature and Quality of Lighting

Learning Objectives

What is Light?

Vision

Opaqueness, Color, and Transparency of Materials to Light

Photometry

Colorimetry, Radiometry, and Photometry

Upcoming Colorimetric Metrics for Solid-State Lighting

Discussion and Conclusions

References

Review Exercises

Conventional Light Sources

Learning Objectives

Competing Light Sources

Incandescent Filament Bulb

Tungsten Halogen Lamp

High-Pressure Mercury Vapor Lamp

Metal Halide Lamp

Low-Pressure Sodium and High-Pressure Sodium Vapor Lamps

Fluorescent Tube and Compact Fluorescent Lamp

Performance Comparison of Different Traditional Light Sources

Discussion and Conclusions

References

Review Exercises

LED-Based Solid-State Lighting

Learning Objectives

LED Diode Family

LED Construction

Quasi-Monochromatic Nature of Emission

Red LED

White LED

Indicator- and Illuminator-Type LEDs

Preliminary Ideas of SSL

Why Solid-State Lighting?

Drawbacks of SSL

Potential and Promises of SSL

Discussion and Conclusions

References

Review Exercises

Inorganic LEDs

Physical Principles of Inorganic LEDs

Learning Objectives

Understanding Lighting Processes from Luminescence Theory

Injection Luminescence: The Most Efficient Electroluminescence

Mechanisms of Electron and Hole Recombination in Semiconductors

Recombination Rates of Excess Carriers and Excess-Carrier Lifetimes

Discussion and Conclusions

References

Review Exercises

Homojunction LEDs

Learning Objectives

Homojunction in Equilibrium

Reverse-Biased Homojunction

Forward-Biased Homojunction

Injection Efficiency of Homojunction LEDs

Discussion and Conclusions

References

Review Exercises

Heterojunction LEDs

Learning Objectives

Increasing Injection Efficiency in LEDs

Isotype and Anisotype Heterojunctions: Notational Conventions and Band Diagrams

Energy Band Offsets in Semiconductors

Advantages of Heterojunctions

Current Injection Ratio Estimation

Single Heterojunction LED

Double Heterojunction LED

Quantum Well Heterostructure LED

Comparison of Homo- and Heterojunction LEDs

Discussion and Conclusions

References

Review Exercises

Surface- and Edge-Emitting LEDs

Learning Objectives

LED Designs Based on Direction of Light Emission

Surface-Emitting LED

Edge-Emitting LED

Superluminescent LED

Discussion and Conclusions

References

Review Exercises

Light Extraction from LEDs

Learning Objectives

Total Internal Reflection of Light and the Escape Cone Concept

Techniques of Improving Light Extraction

Extraction Efficiency Formula for a Single-Escape Cone LED

Efficiency Enhancement by Making Nonplanar, Nonrectangular LEDs

Discussion and Conclusions

References

Review Exercises

Semiconductor Materials for Inorganic LEDs

Learning Objectives

Material Requirements for LED Fabrication

Common LED Materials

Discussion and Conclusions

References

Review Exercises

Fabrication of Inorganic LEDs

Learning Objectives

Heterostructure Growth Methods: LPE and MOCVD

LED Substrates

GaN Diode Processing Steps

Representative Process Sequences of GaN LED Fabrication

Discussion and Conclusions

References

Review Exercises

Packaging of LEDs

Learning Objectives

Through-Hole Packaging

SMT-Based Packaging

COB LED Packaging

Silicon LED Packaging

Heat Produced during LED Operation, and Reliability of LED Plastic Packages

Discussion and Conclusions

References

Review Exercises

LED Performance Parameters

Learning Objectives

Characteristic Parameters of LEDs

Current–Voltage Characteristics of LEDs

Current-Controlled Behavior of LEDs

Forward Voltage Drop (VF) across an LED

Reverse Breakdown Voltage (VR) of an LED

Efficacy of an LED, and the Difference between Efficacy and Efficiency

Optical Parameters of the LED

Discussion and Conclusions

References

Review Exercises

Thermal Management of LEDs

Learning Objectives

Short-Term Effects of Temperature on LED Performance

LED Lifetime Concept

Long-Term Influence of Temperature on Different Parts of the LED

Effect of Thermal Cycling on LED Performance

Correlation of LED Lifetime with Thermally Related Parameters

Maximizing Heat Loss from LED

Discussion and Conclusions

References

Review Exercises

White Inorganic LEDs

Learning Objectives

Primary, Secondary, and Complementary Colors

Wavelength Conversion and Color Mixing Techniques

Wavelength Conversion Examples

Color Mixing Examples

Relative Advantages and Disadvantages of White Light Realization Methods

Quality of White LED Emission

Discussion and Conclusions

References

Review Exercises

Phosphor Materials for LEDs

Learning Objectives

Nonusability of Traditional Phosphors in LEDs

Desirable Requirements for White LED Phosphors

Opportunities for LED Phosphors

Phosphor Location in LEDs

Phosphor Constitution

Phosphor Preparation

Types of Phosphors

Oxide Phosphors

Oxynitride Phosphors

Nitride Phosphors

Oxyhalides and Halide Phosphors

Sulfide Phosphors 288

Inorganic–Organic Hybrid Semiconductors as Phosphors

Organically Capped CdSe Quantum Dots and Sr3SiO5:Ce3+, Li+ Phosphors

Discussion and Conclusions

References

Review Exercises

High-Brightness LEDs

Learning Objectives

Defining High-Brightness LEDs

Necessity of High-Brightness LEDs

Number of Converters Required for Low- and High-Brightness LEDs

Lateral Structures of High-Brightness LEDs

Vertical Architecture of High-Brightness LEDs

Laser Lift-Off Process for Sapphire Substrate Removal

Heat Removal and Protection against Failure Modes

Colors of High-Brightness LEDs

Photonic Crystal LEDs

Encapsulant Materials for High-Brightness LEDs

Applications of High-Brightness LEDs

Discussion and Conclusions

References

Review Exercises

Organic LEDs

Organic Semiconductors and Small-Molecule LEDs

Learning Objectives

Organic Materials and Semiconductors

Electroluminescent Materials for OLEDs

Types of Organic Semiconductors

Early Organic Optoelectronic Materials and the First Organic LED

Energy Band Diagram of OLED

High-Efficiency OLED

Discussion and Conclusions

References

Review Exercises

Polymer LEDs

Learning Objectives

Moving to Polymers

Polymer LED Operation

Internal Quantum Efficiency of Polymer LED

Energy Band Diagrams of Different Polymer LED Structures

Fabrication of Polymer LED

Differences between Small-Molecule and Polymer LEDs

Organic LEDs, Inorganic LEDs, and LCDs

Discussion and Conclusions

References

Review Exercises

White Organic LEDs

Learning Objectives

Obtaining White Electroluminescence

Single Emitter-Based WOLED Schemes

Multiple Emitter-Based WOLEDs

Discussion and Conclusions

References

Review Exercises

LED Driving Circuits

DC Driving Circuits for LEDs

Learning Objectives

Features of DC Sources

Cell and Battery

Battery and Capacitor

Linear Transistor Regulator

Switch-Mode Power Supply

Buck Converter

Boost Converter

Buck–Boost Converter

LED Dimming

Lifetime of the Driving Circuit

Series and Parallel Strings of LEDs

Discussion and Conclusions

References

Review Exercises

AC Driving Circuits for LEDs

Learning Objectives

AC Mains Line

Rectification

Digital Methods of LED Driving

Analog Methods of LED Driving

Power Quality of AC-Driven LED Lighting

Power Factor of LED Circuits

Total Harmonic Distortion in LED Circuits

Resistor-Type and Buck Convertor LED Circuits

AC LEDs

Applications Requiring DC or AC LEDs

Capacitive Current Control LEDs

Discussion and Conclusions

References

Review Exercises

Applications of LEDs

LEDs in General Illumination

Learning Objectives

LED-Based Illumination

Retrofit LED Lamps

LED Bulbs

LED Tube Lights

LED Street Lights

LED Light Bars

Discussion and Conclusions

References

Review Exercises

Large-Area OLED Lighting

Learning Objectives

Paradigm Shift in Lighting Industry

OLED Tiles and Panels

Challenges of Large-Area Mass Manufacturing OLED Technology

Discussion and Conclusions

References

Review Exercises

Inorganic LED Displays

Learning Objectives

Definitions

Main Components of an LED Display

Types of LED Displays

Seven-Segment LED Displays

Resolution of LED Video Image

Virtual Pixel Method to Enhance Image Quality

Types of Virtual Pixels

Building Larger LED Screens by Assembly of Elementary Modules

Gamma Correction

Examples of LED Screens

LED Television (LED-Backlit LCD Television)

Flexible Inorganic LED Displays

Discussion and Conclusions

References

Review Exercises

Organic LED Displays

Learning Objectives

Evolution of Displays

Passive Matrix Organic LED Display

Active Matrix Organic LED Display

TFT Backplane Technologies

OLED Mobile Phone, TV, and Computer Displays

Discussion and Conclusions

References

Review Exercises

Miscellaneous Applications of Solid-State Lighting

Learning Objectives

Power Signage

Fiber Optic Communication Using LEDs

Wireless Communication with Infrared and Visible Light Using LEDs

Medical Applications of LEDs

LEDs in Horticulture

Discussion and Conclusions

References

Review Exercises

Smart Lighting

Learning Objectives

Infusing Intelligence or Smartness in Lighting Buildings

At the Planning Stage of a Building

Five Steps after the Building is Constructed

Aims and Scope of Smart Lighting Technology

Computer Networking

Programming Needs

Emergency Lighting

Smart Lighting Control System

Occupancy Sensing Devices

Daylight-Sensing Devices

Design Aspects

Night-Time Exterior Lighting

Discussion and Conclusions

References

Review Exercises

Future of Lighting

Opportunities and Challenges of Solid-State Lighting

Learning Objectives

Prospective Growth in Solid-State Lighting

Haitz and Tsao Predictions for the Years "2010–2020"

Research Areas and Technical Challenges

Moving beyond 2020

Discussion and Conclusions

References

Review Exercises

Laser Diode and Laser Diode-Based Lighting

Learning Objectives

Light-Emitting and Laser Diodes

Homojunction Laser Diode

Heterojunction Laser Diode

Carrier Confinement

Theory of Laser Diode

From LED to Laser Diode-Based Lighting

Discussion and Conclusions

References

Review Exercises

Index

About the Originator

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI055000
SCIENCE / Physics
TEC019000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Lasers & Photonics
TEC021000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Material Science