Fungal Pathogenesis in Plants and Crops : Molecular Biology and Host Defense Mechanisms, Second Edition book cover
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2nd Edition

Fungal Pathogenesis in Plants and Crops
Molecular Biology and Host Defense Mechanisms, Second Edition




ISBN 9780849398674
Published August 9, 2007 by CRC Press
536 Pages - 92 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

Dramatic progress in molecular biology and genetic engineering has recently produced an unparalleled wealth of information on the mechanisms of plant and pathogen interactions at the cellular and molecular levels. Completely revised and expanded, Fungal Pathogenesis in Plants and Crops: Molecular Biology and Host Defense Mechanisms, Second Edition offers fresh insight into the interplay of signaling systems in plant and pathogen interactions. The book delineates the battle between plant and fungal pathogen and the complex signaling systems involved.

See what's new in the Second Edition:

  • Chapter on the role of disease resistance genes in signal perception and emission
  • Chapter on cell death signaling in disease susceptibility and resistance
  • Revised material on phytoalexins, toxins, and signal perception and transduction in fungal pathogenesis
  • 17 additional families of pathogenesis-related proteins and antifungal proteins

    The book describes the weapons used by fungal pathogens to evade or suppress the host defense mechanisms. It covers each fungal infection process from initial contact and penetration to the subsequent invasion and symptom development. The author explains complex signaling systems in the plant-pathogen interface with flow charts and provides drawings elucidating the biosynthetic pathway of secondary metabolites. He includes figures that highlight cutting-edge breakthroughs in molecular science and tables documenting important findings in the field of molecular plant pathology. These features and more make this book not only the most up to date resource in the field, but also the most important.
  • Table of Contents

    PERCEPTION AND TRANSDUCTION OF PLANT SIGNALS IN PATHOGENS
    Introduction
    Signaling and Transduction Systems in ''First Touch'' and Adhesion of Fungal Spores
    Signaling in Fungal Spore Germination
    Signaling in Differentiation of Germ Tubes into Infection Structures
    Signal Transduction in Fungal Pathogenesis
    Genes Involved in Formation of Infection Structures
    Signals in Fungal Infection Process
    Conclusion
    References

    PERCEPTION AND TRANSDUCTION OF PATHOGEN SIGNALS IN PLANTS
    Introduction
    What Are Elicitors?
    Oligosaccharide Elicitors
    Protein Peptide Elicitors
    Glycoprotein Elicitors
    Lipid Elicitors
    Toxins as Elicitor Molecules
    Plant Cell Wall-Degrading Enzymes as Elicitors
    Race-Specific and Cultivar-Specific Elicitors
    Specificity of General Elicitors
    Endogenous Oligogalacturonide Elicitors
    Multiple Elicitors May Be Needed to Activate Defense Responses
    Availability of Fungal Elicitors at the Site of Fungal Invasion in Plants
    Receptors for Elicitor Signals in Plant Cell Membrane
    Calcium Ion May Act as Second Messenger
    Phosphorylation of Proteins as a Component in Signal Transduction System
    Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Cascades in Signal Transduction
    Phospholipid-Signaling System
    Anion Channels in Signal Transduction
    Extracellular Alkalinization and Cytoplasmic Acidification in Signaling System
    Reactive Oxygen Species in Signal Transduction
    Nitric Oxide in Signal Transduction
    Salicylic Acid-Signaling System
    Jasmonate-Signaling Pathway
    Role of Systemin in Signal Transduction System
    Ethylene-Dependent Signaling Pathway
    Abscisic Acid Signaling
    Fatty Acids as Systemic Signal Molecules
    Other Signaling Systems
    Network and Interplay of Signaling Pathways
    Induction of Defense Genes May Require Different Signal Transduction Systems
    Perception and Transduction of Pathogen Signals in Plants Leading to Susceptibility
    Signaling Systems in Susceptible Interactions
    Conclusion
    References

    DISEASE RESISTANCE AND SUSCEPTIBILITY GENES IN SIGNAL PERCEPTION AND EMISSION
    Introduction
    Molecular Structure of Resistance Genes
    Classification of Resistance Genes based on Molecular Structure of R Gene-Encoded Proteins
    Molecular Structure of Recessive Genes
    Perception of Pathogen Signals by Resistance Genes
    Activation of R Protein and Emission of Signals to Other Components in the Cell
    Downstream Components of R Gene Signaling Systems
    Downstream Signaling Events in R Gene-Mediated Resistance
    Susceptibility Genes in Signal Transduction
    Conclusion
    References

    CELL DEATH PROGRAMS DURING FUNGAL PATHOGENESIS
    Introduction
    Cell Death in Resistant Interactions
    Molecular Mechanism of Induction of Hypersensitive Cell Death
    Molecular Mechanism of Induction of Spontaneous Cell Death
    Molecular Mechanism of Induction of Runaway Cell Death
    Role of Cell Death in Induction of Systemic Acquired Resistance
    Susceptibility-Related Cell Death
    Molecular Mechanisms in Induction of Cell Death in Susceptible Interactions
    What Is the Function of Cell Death in Fungal Pathogenesis?
    Conclusion
    References

    CELL WALL DEGRADATION AND FORTIFICATION
    Introduction
    Structure of Cuticle
    Penetration of Epicuticular Waxy Layer by Pathogens
    Production of Cutinases to Breach Cuticle Barrier
    Genes Encoding Cutinases
    Plant Signals Triggering Fungal Cutinases
    Importance of Cutinases in Penetration of Cuticle
    Cutinases as Virulence Pathogenicity Factors
    Melanins in Fungal Penetration of Cuticle Barrier
    Degradation of Pectic Polysaccharides
    Pathogens Produce Cellulolytic Enzymes to Breach Cell Wall Barrier
    Fungal Hemicellulases in Plant Cell Wall Degradation
    Degradation of Cell Wall Structural Proteins
    Requirement of Several Cell Wall-Degrading Enzymes to Degrade the Complex-Natured Cell Wall
    Production of Suitable Enzymes in Appropriate Sequence by Fungal Pathogens
    Reinforcement of Host Cell Wall during Fungal Invasion
    Papillae Suppress Fungal Penetration
    Callose Deposition in Cell Wall
    How Do Pathogens Overcome the Papillae and Callose Barriers?
    Cell Wall-Bound Phenolics and Lignins
    Suberization during Fungal Pathogenesis
    Deposition of Mineral Elements in Host Cell Wall in Response to Fungal Invasion
    Conclusion
    References

    INDUCTION AND EVASION OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED PROTEINS
    Introduction
    Multiplicity of PR Proteins
    Classification of PR Proteins
    Induction of PR Proteins during Fungal Pathogenesis
    Genes Encoding PR Proteins
    Transcription of PR Genes
    Signals Involved in Transcriptional Induction of PR Genes
    PR Proteins Are Synthesized as Larger Precursors
    Secretion of PR Proteins
    PR Proteins May Be Involved in Inhibition of Pathogen Development
    PR Proteins May Be Involved in Triggering Disease Resistance
    How Do Pathogens Overcome Fungitoxic PR Proteins of the Host?
    Conclusion
    References

    EVASION AND DETOXIFICATION OF SECONDARY METABOLITES
    Introduction
    Chemical Structural Classes of Phytoalexins
    Biosynthesis of Isoflavonoid Phytoalexins
    Biosynthesis of Flavanone Phytoalexins
    Biosynthesis of Coumarin Phytoalexins
    Biosynthesis of Stilbene Phytoalexins
    Biosynthesis of Terpenoid Phytoalexins
    Biosynthesis of Indole-Based Sulfur-Containing Phytoalexins
    Biosynthesis of Alkaloid Phytoalexins
    Site of Synthesis of Phytoalexins
    Phytoalexins Are Fungitoxic
    How Do Pathogens Overcome the Antifungal Phytoalexins?
    Chemical Structural Classes of Phytoanticipins
    Phenolics as Phytoanticipins
    Toxicity of Phenolics to Pathogens
    How Does Pathogen Overcome the Antifungal Phenolics?
    Saponins as Phytoanticipins
    Glucosinolates as Phytoanticipins
    Cyanogenic Glucosides
    Dienes
    Conclusion
    References

    TOXINS IN DISEASE SYMPTOM DEVELOPMENT
    Introduction
    Importance of Toxins in Disease Development
    Toxins Suppress Host-Defense Mechanisms
    Toxins Cause Cell Membrane Dysfunction
    How Do Pathogens Induce Membrane Dysfunction only in Susceptible Hosts?
    Conclusion
    References
    Index

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