GGE Biplot Analysis: A Graphical Tool for Breeders, Geneticists, and Agronomists, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

GGE Biplot Analysis

A Graphical Tool for Breeders, Geneticists, and Agronomists, 1st Edition

By Weikai Yan, Manjit S. Kang

CRC Press

288 pages | 168 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2002-08-28
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Research data is expensive and precious, yet it is seldom fully utilized due to our ability of comprehension. Graphical display is desirable, if not absolutely necessary, for fully understanding large data sets with complex interconnectedness and interactions. The newly developed GGE biplot methodology is a superior approach to the graphical analysis of research data and may revolutionize the way researchers analyze data. GGE Biplot Analysis: A Graphical Tool for Breeders, Geneticists, and Agronomists introduces the theory of the GGE biplot methodology and describes its applications in visual analysis of multi-environment trial (MET) data and other types of research data.

The text includes three parts: I) Genotype by environment interaction and stability analysis, II) GGE biplot and multi-environment trial (MET) data analysis, and III) GGE biplot software and applications in analyzing other types of two-way data. Part I presents a comprehensive but succinct treatment of genotype-by-environment (G x E) interaction in order to provide an overall picture of the entire G x E issue and to show how GGE biplot methodology fits in. Part II describes and demonstrates the numerous utilities of a GGE biplot in visualizing MET data. Part III describes the "GGE biplot" software and extends its application to the analysis of genotype by trait data, QTL mapping data, diallel cross data, and host by pathogen data. Altogether, this book demonstrates that the GGE biplot methodology is a superior data-visualization tool and allows the researcher to graphically extract and utilize the information from MET data and other types of two-way data to the fullest extent.

GGE Biplot Analysis makes this useful technology accessible on a wider scale to plant and animal breeders, geneticists, agronomists, ecologists, and students in these and other related research areas. The information presented here will greatly enhance researchers' ability to understand their data and will make a significant contribution toward helping to meet the challenges of food production and food security that currently face the world. Readers will be amazed to see how much more they can extract from their data by implementing the new and easily understood GGE biplot methods presented here and will soon agree that any delay in using this technique is a loss to their research achievement.


"The objective (of this book) is to demonstrate the power of this (biplot) graphical analysis and enable other scientists to effectively use the methodology and software to gain more insight into their own data. I believe that Yan and Kang have achieved this objective and that someone who has not used this ordination approach before could do so with this book as their guide.

"A major advantage of biplot methodology is that it can be applied to any two-way data with multiple entries and multiple attributes in order to obtain a better understanding of the relationships among entries, relationships among attributes, and the interactions between entries and attributes. Hence the material in this book will be of benefit to any scientists working with such data. I believe no other book covers this methodology and software in equivalent depth and breadth.

"I have no hesitation in recommending this book to breeders, geneticists, agronomists, ecologists, and to biometricians working with them. The biplot methodology greatly enhances the ability to understand and interpret two-way data and this graphical analysis can be readily implemented with the GGEbiplot software."

- K. E. Basford, in Biometrics, Vol 59, 2003

Table of Contents


Genotype-by-Environment Interaction

Heredity and Environment

Genotype-by-Environment Interaction

Implications of GEI in Crop Breeding

Causes of Genotype-by-Environment Interaction

Stability Analyses in Plant Breeding and Performance Trials

Stability Analysis in Plant Breeding and Performance Trials

Stability Concepts and Statistics

Dealing with Genotype-by-Environment Interaction

GGE Biplot: Genotype + GE Interaction


Theory of Biplot

The Concept of Biplot

The Inner-Product Property of a Biplot

Visualizing the Biplot

Relationships among Columns and among Rows

Biplot Analysis of Two-Way Data

Introduction to GGE Biplot

The Concept of GGE and GGE Biplot

The Basic Model for a GGE Biplot

Methods of Singular Value Partitioning

An Alternative Model for GGE Biplot

Three Types of Data Transformation

Generating a GGE Biplot Using Conventional Methods

Biplot Analysis of Multi-Environment Trial Data

Objectives of Multi-Environment Trial Data Analysis

Simple Comparisons Using GGE Biplot

Mega-Environment Investigation

Cultivar Evaluation for a Given Mega-Environment

Evaluation of Test Environments

Comparison with the AMMI Biplot

Interpreting Genotype-by-Environment Interaction


GGE Biplot Software-The Solution for GGE Biplot Analyses

The Need for GGE Biplot Software

The Terminology of Entries and Testers

Preparing Data File for GGE Biplot

Organization of GGE Biplot Software

Functions for a Genotype-by-Environment Dataset

Function for a Genotype-by-Strain Dataset

Application of GGE Biplot to Other Types of Two-way Data

GGE Biplot Continues to Evolve

Cultivar Evaluation Based on Multiple Traits

Why Multiple Traits?

Cultivar Evaluation Based on Multiple Traits

Identifying Traits for Indirect Selection for Loaf Volume

Identification of Redundant Traits

Comparing Cultivars as Packages of Traits

Investigation of Different Selection Strategies

Systems Understanding of Crop Improvement

Three-Mode Principal Component Analysis and Visualization

QTL Identification Using GGE Biplot

Why Biplot?

Data Source and Model

Grouping of Linked Markers

Gene Mapping Using Biplot

QTL Identification via GGE Biplot

Interconnectedness among Traits and Pleiotropic Effects of a Given Locus

Understanding DH Lines through the Biplot Pattern

QTL and GE Interaction

Biplot Analysis of Diallel Data

Model for Biplot Analysis of Diallel Data

General Combining Ability of Parents

Specific Combining Ability of Parents

Heterotic Groups

The Best Testers for Assessing General Combining Ability of Parents

The Best Crosses

Hypothesis on the Genetic Constitution of Parents

Targeting a Large Dataset

Advantages and Disadvantages of the Biplot Approach

Biplot Analysis of Host Genotype-by-Pathogen Strain Interactions

Vertical vs. Horizontal Resistance

Genotype-By-Strain Interaction for a Barley Net Blotch

Genotype-by-Strain Interaction for Wheat Fusarium Head Blight

Biplot Analysis to Detect Synergism between Genotypes of Different Species

Genotype-by-Strain Interaction for Nitrogen-Fixation

Wheat-Maize Interaction for Wheat Haploid Embryo Formation



About the Authors

Yan\, Weikai; Kang\, Manjit S.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
MATHEMATICS / Probability & Statistics / General
SCIENCE / Life Sciences / Botany
SCIENCE / Life Sciences / General
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Agriculture / General