Why do women live longer than men? Does ownership of paired X chromosomes confer more prolonged survival on females, or is the gender difference in life-expectancy a cumulative consequence of differing life experiences for women and men? The areas of gender differences in aging, functional capacity, and the response to physical activity have often
Technical Problems in Comparing Data for Male and Female Subjects. Physical Activity Patterns, Assessment, and Motivation in Older Adults. Constitution or Environment: The Basis of Regional and Ethnic Differences in the Interactions between Gender, Age, and Functional Capacity. Limitations to Oxygen Transport with Aging. Physical Activity, Fitness, and Gender in Relation to Morbidity, Survival, Quality of Life, and Independence in Older Age. Aging of the Neuromuscular System. Aging and Sarcopenia. Aging, Gender, and Susceptibility to Muscle Damage and Overtraining. Aging of Joints and Skeletal System. Aging, Obesity, and Metabolic Regulation. Aging of Immune and Humoral Responses. Conclusions: Implications for Health and Society.