Gender and Development
It is increasingly apparent that the growing challenges facing development scholars, policy-makers, and practitioners in the twenty-first century require a more sophisticated understanding of the importance of gender than has hitherto been the case. At a time when the forces of globalization are transforming economies and peoples, women throughout the world are still marginalized both economically and politically. In particular, new rulings by the World Trade Organization threaten the exports of many developing countries and jobs—often those held by women—are being lost. Such changes are also significantly affecting men and masculinities as gender roles and relations are transformed. Furthermore, global warming is threatening environments and natural resources, such as forests and water, and creating specific—but different—problems for both men and women in developing countries.
Edited and introduced by a leading researcher and activist, this four-volume Major Work in the Routledge Critical Concepts in Development series brings together both cutting-edge and canonical research about gender and development which will enable development scholars, policy-makers, and workers to understand and address such challenges more effectively. Moreover, work on gender and development continues to be very wide-ranging, and increasingly draws on scholarship and insights from across the social sciences and beyond. Much of this literature remains inaccessible, or is highly specialized and compartmentalized, so that it is ever more difficult to gain an informed and comprehensive overview of the current and historical issues and debates. The sheer scale of the growth in research output in gender and development—and the breadth of the field—make this collection especially timely and meets the demand for a wide-ranging, multidisciplinary perspective on this fascinating and important subject.
Volume I (‘Theory and Classics’) provides an historical overview of the classic early contributions to the field of gender and development and brings together the best foundational scholarship, beginning with a piece from Ester Boserup’s Woman’s Role in Economic Development (1970). It also includes theoretical papers on the changing approaches to gender and development, and on development policy in relation to gender.
Volume II (‘Policy and Practice’) gathers together the official texts in gender and development, including the major UN treaties, together with key conference conclusions concerning gender and development. The volume includes material drawing on the Women’s Conferences in Mexico City, Nairobi and Beijing, and on Beijing +5 and Beijing +10. In addition, the volume contains material from the Cairo Conference on Population, and from the Rio de Janeiro and Johannesburg Environment Conferences. Volume II also includes material on the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination (CEDAW), the Commission on the Status of Women, the Millennium Development Goals, and the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM). The US Percy Amendment and similar policy statements from the UK and Canada, and from the World Bank, are also included.
The third and fourth volumes are concerned with economic and cultural issues respectively and are illustrated by case studies from the global South. Volume III (‘Natural Resource Use, Microfinance, Labour, and Migration’) focuses on the gender division of labour and explores issues such as domestic service; factory work; tourism; agriculture; and sex work. It also includes scholarship on issues such as gendered access to natural resources including land and water.
Volume IV (‘Aspects of Culture and Health’) collects the essential scholarship concerned with recent changes related to global economic and political restructuring. Journal articles and other material here include studies on migration; reproductive rights; health (including the gender aspects of HIV/AIDS); violence and warfare; identity; gendered political roles; gender and fieldwork; positionality, indigenous peoples; and gender roles in cultural survival and biodiversity.
With introductions, newly written by the editor, which place the collected material in its historical and intellectual context, Gender and Development is an essential collection destined to be valued by scholars, students, and practitioners as a vital research resource.
Table of Contents
Volume I: Theory and Classics
1. Ester Boserup, ‘Male and Female Farming Systems’ and ‘Women in a Men’s World’, Woman’s Role in Economic Development (London: Earthscan Publications, 1989), pp. 15–36, 85–105 (originally published in 1970).
2. Lourdes Beneria and Gita Sen, ‘Accumulation, Reproduction, and Women’s Role in Economic Development: Boserup Revisited’, Signs Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 1981, 7, 2, pp. 279–98.
3. Barbara Rogers, ‘Women and Men: The Division of Labour’, The Domestication of Women: Discrimination in Developing Societies (London: Kogan Page, 1980), pp. 12–26.
4. Sue Ellen M. Charlton and Constantina Safilios-Rothschild, ‘Development and Women’, in Sue Ellen M. Charlton (ed.), Women in Third World Development (London: Westview Press, 1984), pp. 32–54.
5. Irene Tinker, ‘The Making of a Field: Advocates, Practitioners and Scholars’, in Tinker (ed.), Persistent Inequalities: Women and World Development (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1990), pp. 27–53.
6. Maxine Molyneux, ‘Mobilization Without Emancipation? Women’s Interests, the State and Revolution in Nicaragua’, Feminist Studies, 1985, 11, 2, pp. 227–64.
7. Caroline O. N. Moser, ‘Towards Gender Planning: A New Planning Tradition and Planning Methodology’, Gender Planning and Development: Theory, Practice and Training (London: Routledge, 1993), pp. 83–107.
8. Lourdes Arizpe, ‘Women in the Informal Labor Sector: The Case of Mexico City’, Signs, 1977, 3, 1, pp. 25–37.
9. Diane Elson and Ruth Pearson, ‘The Subordination of Women and the Internationalisation of Factory Production’, in Kate Young, Carol Wolkowitz, and Roslyn McCullagh (eds.), Of Marriage and the Market: Women’s Subordination in International Perspective (London: CSE Books, 1981), pp. 144–66.
10. Rae Lesser Blumberg, ‘Income Under Female Versus Male Control: Hypotheses from a Theory of Gender Stratification and Data from the Third World’, in Blumberg (ed.), Gender, Family, and Economy: The Triple Overlap (Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1991), pp. 97–127.
11. Lourdes Beneria, ‘Accounting for Women’s Work: The Progress of Two Decades’, World Development, 1992, 20, 11, pp. 1547–60.
12. Vandana Shiva, ‘Development Ecology and Women’, Staying Alive: Women, Ecology and Development (London: Zed Books, 1989), pp. 1–13.
13. Janet H. Momsen, ‘Gender Differences in Environmental Concern and Perception’, Journal of Geography, 99, pp. 47–56.
14. Deniz Kandiyoti, ‘Bargaining with Patriarchy’, Gender and Society, 1988, 2, 3, pp. 274–90.
15. Amartya K. Sen, ‘Gender and Cooperative Conflicts’, in Irene Tinker (ed.), Persistent Inequalities: Women and World Development (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1990), pp. 123–49.
16. Anne Varley, ‘Women-Heading Households: Some More Equal Than Others?’, World Development, 1996, 24, 3, pp. 505–20.
17. Alain Marcoux, ‘The Feminization of Poverty: Claims, Facts and Data Needs’, Population and Development Review, 1998, 24, 1, pp. 131–9.
18. Sylvia Chant, ‘Dangerous Equations? How Female-Headed Households Became the Poorest of the Poor: Causes, Consequences and Cautions’, IDS Bulletin, 2004, 35, 4, pp. 19–26.
19. Prudence Woodford-Berger, ‘Gender Mainstreaming: What is It (About) and Should We Continue Doing It?’, IDS Bulletin, 2004, 35, 4, pp. 65–72.
Volume II: POLICY and PRACTICE
20. The United Nations and the Advancement of Women 1945–1996 (introduced by Boutros Boutros-Ghali) (the United Nations Blue Books Series, Volume VI, revised edn.) (New York: Department of Public Information, United Nations, 1996), pp. 8–74.
21. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, Adopted by General Assembly on 18 Dec. 1979, The United Nations and the Advancement of Women 1945–1996 (introduced by Boutros Boutros-Ghali) (the United Nations Blue Books Series, Volume VI, revised edn.) (New York: Department of Public Information, United Nations, 1996), pp. 244–50.
22. Monica S. Fong and Anjana Bhushan, Toolkit on Gender in Agriculture (Gender Toolkit Series No. 1) (Washington DC: Gender Analysis and Policy, Poverty and Social Policy Department, the World Bank, 1996),
23. Barbara Thomas-Slayter, Andrea Lee Esser, and M. Dale Shields, Tools of Gender Analysis: A Guide to Field Methods for Bringing Gender into Sustainable Resource Management (Worcester, MA: ECOGEN research project, International Development Program, Clark University, July 1993), pp. 1–44.
24. Catherine Overholt et al., ‘Women in Development: A Framework for Project Analysis’, in Overholt et al., Gender Roles in Development Projects: A Case Book (West Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press), 1985, pp. 3–15.
25. Cecile Jackson, ‘Disciplining Gender?’, World Development, 2002, 30, 3, pp. 497–509.
26. Faranak Miraftab, ‘Can You Belly Dance? Methodological Questions in the Era of Transnational Feminist Research’, Gender, Place and Culture, 2004, 11, 4, pp. 595–604.
27. Carla Freeman, ‘Is Local: Global as Feminine: Masculine? Rethinking the Gender of Globalization’, Signs, 2001, 26, 4, pp. 1007–37.
28. Ruth B. Dixon, ‘Seeing the Invisible Women Farmers in Africa: Improving Research and Data Collection Methods’, in Jamie Monson and Marion Kalb (eds.), Women as Food Producers in Developing Countries (Los Angeles: UCLA African Studies Center, African Studies Association, and OEF International, 1985), pp. 19–35.
29. Hazel R. Barrett and Angela W. Browne, ‘Time for Development: The Case of Women’s Horticultural Schemes in Rural Gambia’, Scottish Geographical Magazine, 1989, 105, 1, pp. 4–11.
30. Franziska Pfister, ‘Integrating Gender-Sensitive Approaches: A Challenge for the Natural Sciences’, Gender and Sustainable Development: Case Studies from NCCR North-South (Bern: NCCR, 2006), pp. 45–56.
31. Patricia L. Howard, ‘Women and the Plant World: An Exploration’, in Howard (ed.), Women and Plants: Gender Relations in Biodiversity Management and Conservation (London: Zed Books, 2003), pp. 1–48.
32. Andrea Cornwall, ‘Whose Voices? Whose Choices? Reflections on Gender and Participatory Development’, World Development, 2003, 31, 8, pp. 1325–42.
33. Lenore Lyons and Janine Chipperfield, ‘(De)constructing the Interview: A Critique of the Participatory Model’, RFR/DRF, 28, 1 and 2, pp. 33–48.
34. Daphne Patai, ‘U.S. Academics and Third World Women: Is Ethical Research Possible?’, in Sherna Berger Gluck and Daphne Patai (eds.), Women’s Words: The Feminist Practice of Oral History (London: Routledge, 1991), pp. 137–53.
35. Shahrzad Mojab, ‘Doing Fieldwork on Women in Theocratic Islamic States: A Critique of the Politics of Empiricism Model’, RFR/DRF, 28, 1 and 2, pp. 81–98.
VOLUME III: Natural Resource Use, Microfinance, Labour, and Migration
36. Bina Agarwal, ‘The Gender and Environment Debate: Lessons from India’, Feminist Studies, 1992, 18(1), pp. 119–58.
37. Barbara P. Thomas-Slater, ‘Politics, Class and Gender in African Resource Management: The Case of Rural Kenya’, Economic Development and Cultural Change, 1992, pp. 809–28.
38. Louise Fortmann, Camille Antinori, and Nontokozo Nabane, ‘Fruits of their Labors: Gender, Property Rights, and Tree Planting in Two Zimbabwe Villages’, Rural Sociology, 1997, 62(3), 295–314.
39. Michael Kevane and Leslie C. Gray, ‘A Woman’s Field is Made at Night: Gendered Land Rights and Norms in Burkina Faso’, Feminist Economics, 1999, 5(3), pp. 1–26.
40. Rebecca Elmhirst, ‘Reconciling Feminist Theory and Gendered Resource Management in Indonesia’, Area, 1998, 30(3), 225–35.
41. Gale Summerfield, ‘Gender Equity and Rural Land Reform in China’, in Jane Jacquette and Gale Summerfield (eds.), Women and Gender Equity in Development Theory: Institutions, Resources and Mobilization (Durham: Duke Univ. Press, 2006), pp. 137–58.
42. Nina Laurie, ‘Establishing Development Orthodoxy: Negotiating Masculinities in the Water Sector’, Development and Change, 2005, 36(3), 527–49.
43. Farhana Sultana, ‘Gendered Waters, Poisoned Wells: Political Ecology of the Arsenic Crisis in Bangladesh’, in Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt (ed.), Fluid Bonds: Vies on Gender and Water (Calcutta: Stree Publishers and the National Institute for Environment, Australian National University, Canberra, 2006), pp. 362–86.
44. Susanne Fleischli, ‘Gender Relevance in Environmental Conflicts: A Gender Analysis of the Cauvery Dispute in South India’, in S. Premchander and C. Müller (eds.), Gender and Sustainable Development: Case Studies from NCCR (University of Bern, Switzerland: Geographica Bernensia, 2006), pp. 189–205.
45. Chinwe Ifejika Speranza, ‘Gender-Based Analysis of Vulnerability to Drought Among Agro-Pastoral Households in Semi-Arid Makueni District, Kenya’, in S. Premchander and C. Müller (eds.), Gender and Sustainable Development: Case Studies from NCCR (University of Bern, Switzerland: Geographica Bernensia, 2006), pp. 119–46.
46. Linda Mayoux, ‘Women’s Empowerment Versus Sustainability? Towards a New Paradigm in Micro-Finance Programmes’, in Beverly Lemire, Ruth Pearson, and Gail Campbell (eds.), Women and Credit: Researching the Past, Refiguring the Future (Oxford: Berg, 2001), pp. 245–69.
47. Naila Kabeer, ‘Is Microfinance a "Magic Bullet" for Women’s Empowerment? Analysis of Findings From South Asia’, Economic and Political Weekly, 29 Oct. 2005, pp. 4709–18.
48. Anita Spring, ‘Gender and the Range of African Entrepreneurial Strategies: The "Typical" and "New" Women Entrepreneurs’, in Alusine Jalloh and Toyin Falola (eds.), Black Business and Economic Power (Rochester, NY: Univ. of Rochester Press, 2002), pp. 381–401.
49. Gowrie Ponniah and Geraldine Reardon, ‘Women’s Labor in Bangladesh and Sri Lanka: The Trade-off with Technology’, Gender Technology and Development, 1999, 3(1), 85–102.
50. Lucille Mathurin-Mair, ‘Women Field Workers in Jamaica During Slavery’, in Shobhita Jain and Rhoda Reddock (eds.), Women Plantation Workers: International Experiences (Oxford: Berg, 1998), pp. 17–28.
51. Togrul Hande Keklik, ‘"As If She is Family": The Marginalisation of Unpaid Household Workers in Turkey’, Gender and Development, 2006, 4(2), 191–8.
52. Rhacel Salazar Parrenas, ‘Migrant Filipina Domestic Workers and the International Division of Reproductive Labor’, Gender and Society, 2000, 14(4), 560–81.
53. Shirlena Huang and Brenda S. A. Yeoh, ‘The Difference Gender Makes: State Policy and Contract Migrant Workers in Singapore’, Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, 2003, 12 (1 and 2), 75–97.
54. Heidi Kaspar, ‘"I am the Head of the Household Now": The Impacts of Outmigration for Labour on Gender Hierarchies in Nepal’, in S. Premchander and C. Müller (eds.), Gender and Sustainable Development: Case Studies from NCCR (University of Bern, Switzerland: Geographica Bernensia, 2006), pp. 285–303
55. Regina Scheyvens, ‘Gender-Sensitive Tourism’, Tourism for Development: Empowering Communities (Harlow: Pearson Education, 2002), pp. 122–42.
Volume IV: Aspects of Culture and Health
56. Shaheen Sardar Ali, ‘Women’s Rights, CEDAW and International Human Rights Debates: Towards Empowerment?’, in Jane L. Parpart, Shirin M. Rai, and Kathleen Staudt (eds.), Rethinking Empowerment: Gender and Development in a Global/Local World (London: Routledge, 2002), pp. 61–78.
57. Tovi Fenster, ‘Space for Gender: Cultural Roles of the Forbidden and Permitted’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 1999, 17, 227–46.
58. Lily Phua and Brenda S. A. Yeoh, ‘Everyday Negotiations: Women’s Spaces and the Public Housing Landscape in Singapore’, Australian Geographer, 1998, 29(3), pp. 309–26.
59. Kathleen Cloud, ‘How Mothering Behaviours Change During Structural Transformation’, 2002, Journal of Socio-Economics, 31, 3–14.
60. Georgina Waylen, ‘Women and Democratization: Conceptualizing Gender Relations in Transition Politics’, World Politics, 1994, 46, 327–54.
61. Victoria Bernal, ‘Women and the Remaking of Islamic "Tradition" in a Sudanese Village’, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 1994, 36(1), 36–67.
62. Richard A. Schroeder, ‘Gone to Their Second Husbands: Marital Metaphors and Conjugal Contracts in the Gambia’s Female Garden Sector’, Canadian Journal of African Studies, 1996, 30, 10, 69–87.
63. Colette Harris, ‘Tackling Sexual Distress: Two Case Studies From the Central Asian Republic of Tajikistan’, in Diana Gibson and Anita Hardon (eds.), Rethinking Masculinities, Violence and Aids (Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis, 2005), pp. 175–200.
64. Kamala Kempadoo, ‘Victims and Agents of Crime: The New Crusade Against Trafficking’, in Julia Sudbury (ed.), Global Lockdown: Race, Gender and the Prison-Industrial Complex (London: Routledge, 2005), pp. 35–56.
65. Fiona Macaulay, ‘Tackling Violence Against Women in Brazil: Converting International Principles into Effective Local Policy’, in Susie Jacobs, Ruth Jacobson, and Jen Marchbank (eds.), States of Conflict: Gender, Violence and Resistance (London: Zed Books, 2004), pp. 144–62.
66. Barbara Earth, ‘Diversifying Gender: Male to Female Transgender Identities and HIV/AIDS Programming in Phnom Penh, Cambodia’, Gender and Development, 2006, 14(2), 259–71.
67. Kirk R. Smith, ‘Women’s Work: The Kitchen Kills More Than the Sword’, in Jane Jacquette and Gale Summerfield (eds.), Women and Gender Equity in Development Theory and Practice: Institutions, Resources, and Mobilization (London: Duke Univ. Press, 2006), pp. 202–15.
68. Francesca Mancini et al., ‘Acute Pesticide Poisoning Among Female and Male Cotton Growers in India’, International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2005, 11(3), pp. 221–32.
69. Kate Young, ‘Widows Without Rights: Challenging Marginalization and Dispossession’, Gender and Development, 2006, 14(2), pp. 199–209.
70. Fiona Clark and Nina Laurie, ‘Gender, Age and Exclusion: A Challenge to Community Organizations in Lima, Peru’, Gender and Development, 2000, 8(2), 80–8.
71. Wendy Harcourt, ‘Women’s Networking for Change’, Journal of Interdisciplinary Gender Studies, 2004, 8 (1 and 2), 106–32.
72. Rachel Silvey and Rebecca Elmhirst, ‘Engendering Social Capital: Women Workers and Rural-Urban Networks in Indonesia’s Crisis’, World Development, 2003, 31(5), pp. 865–79.
73. Susie Jacobs, ‘Globalisation, States and Women’s Agency: Possibilities and Pitfalls’, in Susie Jacobs, Ruth Jacobson, and Jen Marchbank (eds.), States of Conflict: Gender, Violence and Resistance (2004), pp. 217–37.