General Aviation Security: Aircraft, Hangars, Fixed-Base Operations, Flight Schools, and Airports, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

General Aviation Security

Aircraft, Hangars, Fixed-Base Operations, Flight Schools, and Airports, 1st Edition

By Daniel J. Benny, Ph.D

CRC Press

347 pages | 45 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2012-08-16
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After 9/11, the initial focus from the U.S. government, media, and the public was on security at commercial airports and aboard commercial airlines. Soon, investigation revealed the hijackers had trained at flight schools operating out of general aviation airports, leading to a huge outcry by the media and within the government to mandate security regulations for this flight sector. General Aviation Security: Aircraft, Hangars, Fixed-Base Operations, Flight Schools, and Airports examines the threats against general aviation (GA) and presents resources for security professionals and GA airport owners and operators to develop an impenetrable airport and aircraft security plan.

Following an overview of general aviation and its inherent security threats, the book explores:

  • Physical security for the aviation environment, including intrusion detection systems, cameras, locks, lighting, and window security
  • The security force, including recruitment and training
  • Security of general aviation aircraft and airports, including runway security and fuel storage
  • Airport safety regulations such as the Workers Protection Act and the Bloodborne Pathogens Act
  • Emergency response to a range of scenarios, including medical emergencies, fires, gas leaks, and bomb threats
  • The security of hangars, fixed-base operations, and flight schools
  • Corporate aviation security departments

The book concludes with a study involving the Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA) Airport Watch Program and the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) security requirements and recommendations for general aviation.

General aviation supports public safety, business, agriculture, commercial airports, aeronautical education, and many aspects of the aviation industry. The book is the first to explore the unique security concerns relevant to general aviation operations.

Dr. Daniel J. Benny was interviewed on video by General Aviation Security Magazine about his article concerning the effects of the Airport Watch Program.


"Dr. Benny gives the reader practical slices of airport and general aviations operations … the various organizations, agencies, and associations found at general aviation airports. This is a practical primer which will bring the general aviation security novice up-to-speed on applicable federal regulations, current topics, and generally accepted practices." —GA Security Magazine

Table of Contents

General Aviation

General Aviation Aircraft

General Aviation Airports

Fixed-Base Operator

Flight Schools

Importance of General Aviation

Public Safety



Economic Development

Feeder Airport

Promotion of Aviation and Education

Personal Use

The Threat from General Aviation

The Security Threat to General Aviation

Security Threats Against Individuals in the Aviation Environment

Security Threats Against Aircraft

Security Threats Against General Aviation Airports

Security Threats Against Hangars

Security Threats Against the Fixed-Base Operation

Security Threats Against the Flight School

Security Threat from Terrorists Using General Aviation Aircraft

Terrorism and Counterterrorism



International Terrorist Organizations

Physical Security for the Aviation Environment


Deter Entry

Delay Entry

Detect Entry

Intrusion Detections System

Electromagnetic Contacts



Glass Breakage






Passive Infrared

Capacitance Proximity

Integrated Fire Protection Sensors

Natural Gas and Carbon Monoxide Detectors

Water Flow

Security Cameras


Transmission of the Signal


Digital Recording

Motion Detection

Determining Total System Cost of the Security System

System Design Cost

System Installation Cost

System Operational Cost

Maintenance Cost

Replacement Cost

Locks and Key Control

Mechanical Locks

Wafer Tumbler Lock

Dial Combination Lock

High-Security Dead-Bolt Lock

Card Access Electrified Locks

Exit Locks

Master Locking System

Control of Keys and Locking Devices

Security Barriers and Fencing

Security Lighting


New Fluorescent (to Replace the Incandescent)


Mercury Vapor

Sodium Vapor

Window Security

Annealed Glass

Wire-Reinforced Glass

Tempered Glass

Laminated Glass

Annealed Glass with Security Film



Bullet-Resistant Material

Other Window Security

Airport/Corporate Aviation Security Force


Chief Security Officer

Determining the Size of the Security Force

Mission of the Security Force

Airport Profile and Security Threat

Size of the Airport

Hours of Operation

Number of Employees, Visitors, Pilots, Aircraft

Proprietary Security Force

Contract Security Force

Security Force Uniforms

Security Force Identification

Security Force Protective Equipment

Security Force Training

Professional Security Certifications

Security Force Recruitment and Supervision

Security of General Aviation Aircraft

Aircraft Threat Assessment and Security Plan

Aircraft Documentation

Avionics Documentation

Aircraft Key Control and Locking Devices

Aircraft Intrusion Detection Systems

Aircraft Access and Baggage Control

Aircraft Maintenance Security

In-Flight Security

Remain-Overnight Security

Security of General Aviation Airports

General Aviation Airport Threat Assessment and Security Plan

Security Awareness and Training

Airport Perimeter Security

Airport Access and Key Control

Airport Security Signage

Airport Security Lighting

Airport Security Cameras

Runway Security

Aircraft Tie-Down and Ramp Area Security

Fuel Storage Security

Aerial Working Chemical Storage Security

Internet Security

Airport Safety


General Aviation Safety Policy

Safety Culture

Safety Program

Safety Coordinator

Safety and Fire Inspections

General Aviation Aircraft Ground Safety

Fire Protection Equipment

Fire Evacuation Plans and Drills

Right-to-Know Workers Protection Act

Hazardous Chemical Inventory

Material Safety Data Sheets

Container Marking

Hazardous Communications/Right-to-Know Training

Bloodborne Pathogens Act

Bloodborne Pathogens Policy

Availability of the Bloodborne Pathogens Policy to Employees

Review and Update of the Policy

Exposure Determination

Universal Precautions and Engineering Controls

Hepatitis B Vaccination Program

Postexposure Evaluation and Follow-Up Information Provided to the Health Care Professional

Health Care Professional’s Written Evaluation

Medical Record Keeping

Labels and Signs

Information and Training

Hazardous Waste Management

Emergency Response


Response to A General Aviation Aircraft Accident




Medical Emergencies

Responding to Medical Emergencies

Treatment of the Victim

Vehicle Accidents



Notification of Fire


Securing the Scene


Replacement of Extinguishers

Natural Gas Leaks

Important Safety Precautions

Severe Weather and Natural Disasters

Bomb Threats

Notification and Evacuation

Bomb Search

Notification of Bomb Disposal Unit


Hostage Situation

Security of General Aviation Hangars

Hangar Security and Safety

Fire Protection

Security of Fixed-Base Operation


General Security Matters

Ramp Security Measures

Fixed-Base Operator Security Coordinator

Fixed-Base Security Coordinator Training

Aircraft Security

Aircraft Rentals

Transient Pilots

Reporting Suspicious Activity

Security of the Flight School


Transportation Security Administration Security Requirement for Flight Schools

Security Awareness and Training

Access and Key Control

Security Signage

Security Lighting

Security Cameras

Intrusion Detection Systems

Corporate Aviation Security Department

Aircraft Security

Corporate Remain-Overnight Security

Executive and Staff Travel Security

Travel Preparations

Sources of Information




Hotel Security

Personal Security In A Foreign Country

Personal Conduct


Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association Airport Watch


Components of the AOPA Airport Watch

A Study of the AOPA Airport Watch


Research Questions and Hypotheses

Research Question 1


Statement of the Problem


Recommendations of the Study

Transportation Security Administration Security Requirements and Recommendations for General Aviation

Department of Homeland National Terrorism Advisory System

National Terrorism Advisory System Alerts

Sunset Provision

Transportation Security Administration Large Aircraft Security Program

Transportation Security Administration General Aviation Secure Program

Transportation Security Administration Secure Fixed-Base Operator Program

DCA Access Standard Security Program

The Transportation Security Administration Private Charter Standard Security Program

Maryland Three Program

Transportation Security Administration Flight School Training Requirements

General Aviation Security Resources

Governmental Organizations with Aviation Security Resources

Department of Homeland Security: Transportation Security Administration

Federal Aviation Administration

Federal Bureau of Investigation

U.S. Department of State

Professional Aviation and Security Organizations

American Society for Industrial Security International

Airlines for America (Formerly Air Transport Association)

Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association

American Association of Airport Executives

Aviation Crime Prevention Institute

International Association for Counterterrorism and Security Professionals

Aviation Security: Higher Education

Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (Daytona, Prescott, Worldwide Campuses)

Aviation Security Education and Training

Aviation Security Publications

Aviation Security International Magazine

General Aviation Security Magazine

Appendix A: Global Terrorist Groups

Appendix B: Sample General Aviation Airport Security Plan

Appendix C: The Impact of the Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association Airport Watch Program on Crime at Pennsylvania General Aviation Airports


About the Author

Daniel J. Benny, Ph.D. is the security discipline chair at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University. He is board certified in security management as a Certified Protection Professional (CPP), board certified as a Professional Certified Investigator (PCI), both by ASIS International; Certified Fraud Examiner (CFE) by the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners; Certified Confidentiality Officer (CCO) by the Business Espionage Controls and Countermeasures Association; and Certified Member (CM) Airport Certified Employee-Security (ACE) and Airport Security Coordinator by the American Association of Airport Executives. He is also a licensed private investigator and security consultant. Dr. Benny has authored numerous books and articles on security, aviation, and intelligence topics. He served as a U.S. Naval Intelligence Officer at the Office of Naval Intelligence, Naval Criminal Investigative Service, Willow Grove Naval Air Station, Fleet Rapid Support Team, and Central Intelligence Agency. He is a Federal Aviation Administration licensed private pilot and safety team representative. Dr. Benny is a Cessna C-172 aircraft owner and holds the rank of major with the U.S. Air Force Auxiliary Civil Air Patrol.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
HISTORY / Military / General
LAW / Forensic Science
POLITICAL SCIENCE / Political Freedom & Security / International Security