Geochemical methods of prospecting for and evaluation of minerals are applied widely today at all stages of geological exploration. However, geochemical methods of prospecting for many classes of non-metallic minerals have not been elaborated. This book is a completely revised, updated and expanded edition of the publication by the same authors, which was published in 1987. The contains a collection the latest data on geochemical prospecting for non-metals, which is valuable in view of the anticipated increase of consumption and utilization of non-metallic minerals in the future. The information on various types of raw material is presented in the following sequence: 1) general data (genetic types, conditions of formation, geological prospecting indications); 2) indicator minerals and elements; 3) geochemical methods of prospecting along dispersion trains and haloes, plus hydrogeochemical and geobotanical methods; 4) primary endogenic haloes; 5) vertical geochemical zonality; 6) methods, stages and sequence of work.
Preface TYPES OF NON-METALLIC MINERALS AND GENERAL DATA ON GEOCHEMICAL METHODS OF PROSPECTING General principles of geochemical migration Orientation studies The combination of biogeochemistry and biogeophysics in exploration and prospecting for hidden and buried ore bodies and deposits Geochemical prospecting of deposits in the moraine cover Primary geochemical haloes Application of geochemical methods depending on the scope and objectives of exploration Element associations Geochemical exploration of non-metallic deposits by superimposed haloes of halogens Mercury aureoles and exploration Concentrations of radioelements DEPOSITS OF THE FIRST GROUP Diamonds Beryl, topaz and tourmaline Emerald Corundum, sapphire, ruby and spinel Rhodonite Graphite Asbestos Mica--muscovite Mica--phlogopite Rock crystal Iceland spar Malachite Chrysoprase Turquoise Conclusions DEPOSITS OF THE SECOND GROUP Apatite Phosphorite Boron Barite Fluorite and cryolite Sulphur Salts Natural soda Gypsum and anhydrite Limestones and dolomites Conclusions DEPOSITS OF THE THIRD GROUP Magnesite Wollastonite Brucite Talc Jadeite Lazurite Feldspars and pegmatites Vermiculite Vein quartz and quartzites Sand and gravel Clays Perlite, pumice and volcanic glass Siliceous rocks Magmatic, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks Conclusions NEW TYPES OF NON-METALLIC DEPOSITS; THE ROLE OF ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES AND INSTRUMENTATION IN GEOCHEMICAL EXPLORATION Decomposition techniques New analytical techniques and laboratory Instrumental neutron activation in geoanalysis Atomic absorption spectrometry in geochemical exploration Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry in exploration geochemistry The technique for elemental analysis (ICP-MS) Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in geoanalysis X-ray fluorescence spectrometry The new generation of microanalysers Homogeneous sample for mineral analysis and automated field identification of alteration minerals The experience of the application of full and partial phase chemical analysis in geochemical research NEW PROGRESSIVE TECHNOLOGIES FOR MINERAL EXPLORATION Geological mapping using airborne geophysics -- new frontiers Geochemical surveys Imaging spectrometry and radar techniques Atmospheric geochemical measurement Gas surveying application in prospecting for non-metallic minerals Application of resistivity tomography to mineral exploration The method of the application of artificial sorbents Fluid inclusions and areals of fluid inclusions in geochemical prospecting Geoelectrochemical methods of prospecting Applications to mineral prospecting New geochemical exploration method for blind ore deposits Appendix References Subject index