Geochemistry of Skarn and Ore Formation in Dolomites
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This monograph reflects the results of a fundamental investigation of metasomatic skarn and ore formation in dolomites, which the author has been conducting for decades. The genetic complication and practical significance of skarn deposits of ores and other minerals found on all continents necessitated comprehensive studying of the processes of their formation, the petrochemical and mineral composition of metasomatic rocks and ores, and their postmagmatic and exogentic alteration. The investigation was based on the latest methods for establishing chemical composition, simulation of hydrothermal ore formation, and on information on the isotope composition of carbon, oxygen, boron and sulfur in ores and minerals. The development in geochemical methods of prognosis, prospecting for, and appraising the quality of skarn ores of various composition proved their merits in the finding of new deposits and promising bodies of new mineral kinds of ores in Russia and other countries.
Table of Contents
PREFACE ABBREVIATIONS INTRODUCTION PART I. GEOCHEMISTRY OF INFILTRATION SKARN FORMATION IN THE MAGMATIC STAGE WITH REPLACEMENT OF CARBONATE ROCKS CHAPTER 1. GEOCHEMICAL LAWS GOVERNING THE EVOLUTION OF METASOMATIC SKARN ZONING IN THE MAGMATIC STAGE Sec. 1. Primitive Metasomatic Zoning of Magnesian Skarns Sec. 2. Intensity of the Metasomatic Alteration in Dolomites and Its Role in Forming Zoning with Displaced Components Sec. 3. Metasomatic Zoning of Rising Skarn Bodies Sec. 4. Composition of Carbonate Rocks and Its Role in Changing the Zoning of Metasomatic Bodies Sec. 5. Role of the Petrochemical Compositions of Intrusions in the Formation of Metasomatic Zoning Sec. 6. Kinetics of Infiltration of Fluids in Long-Living Zones of Carbonate Rock Crushing and Zoning of Rhythmically Banded Metasomites of the Magmatic Stage of Skarn Formation CHAPTER 2. METASOMATIC ZONING AND ITS ROLE IN THE FORMATION OF POSTMAGMATIC DEPOSITS IN MAGNESIAN SKARNS Sec. 7. Metasomatic Zoning of Magnesian Skarns and Its Significance for Solving Problems of Applied Geochemistry Sec. 8. Occurrence, Facies, and Ore Content of Skarns in Dolomite and Calcic Contacts PART II. POSTMAGMATIC FORMATION OF MINERALS AND ORE CONCENTRATIONS IN MAGNESIAN SKARNS AND DOLOMITES CHAPTER 3. THE GEOCHEMISTRY OF EARLY POSTMAGMATIC SKARN FORMATION Sec. 9. High-temperature Transformations of the Mineral Composition in Magnesian Skarn of the Magmatic Stage Sec. 10. Calcic-Skarn Replacements of Magnesian Skarns CHAPTER 4. FORMATION OF HIGH-TEMPERATURE MINERALIZATION AT TYPES MAGNESIAN-SKARN DEPOSITS Sec. 11. Magnetite Magnesian-Skarn Deposits Sec. 12. Deposits and Ores of Magnesian Borates Sec. 13. Deposits and Ores of Magnesian-Ferruginous Borates of the Ludwigite-Vonsenite Series Sec. 14. The Genetic Position of Fluoborite at Boron Deposits Sec. 15. Formation of Borate, Boron-Tin, Tin, and Other Kinds of Ores in Superposed Calcic Skarns and Skarnoids CHAPTER 5. THE GEOCHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY OF ORES APPEARING IN LATE STAGES AT DEPOSITS OF A MAGNESIAN SKARN FORMATION Sec. 16. Greigenization processes in Magnesian-Skarn Deposits Sec. 17. Processes of Sulfide Mineralization Sec. 18. Processes of Mineral Formation in the Late Alkaline Stage PART III. HYPERGENETIC PROCESSES OF ORE SEPARATION CHAPTER 6. GEOCHEMISTRY AND MINERAL FORMATION IN THE HYPOGENESIS ZONE PART IV. GEOCHEMISTRY OF STABLE ISOTOPES AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF POSTMAGMATIC MINERAL AND ORE FORMATION CHAPTER 7. GEOCHEMISTRY OF STABLE ISOTOPES IN SKARN AND ORE FORMATION PROCESSES CHAPTER 8. PHYSICOCHEMICAL CONDITIONS OF FORMATION OF ORE DEPOSITS IN A MAGNESIAN SKARN PART V. GEOCHEMICAL FUNDAMENTALS OF PROGNOSIS, PROSPECTING FOR, AND APPRAISING MAGNESIAN-SKARN ORE DEPOSITS CHAPTER 9. REGIONAL GEOCHEMICAL PROGNOSIS CHAPTER 10. GEOCHEMICAL CRITERIA FOR PROSPECTING FOR AND APPRAISING QUALITY OF ORES IN ORE FIELDS AND DEPOSITS CONCLUSION REFERENCES