Geosynthetic Clay Liners for Waste Containment Facilities  book cover
1st Edition

Geosynthetic Clay Liners for Waste Containment Facilities

ISBN 9780415467339
Published November 16, 2009 by CRC Press
254 Pages - 166 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Increasingly stringent regulation of pollution and waste production worldwide drives the need to isolate contaminants that pose a threat to human and environmental health by using engineered barrier systems involving the use of low permeable materials. Over the past two decades, geosynthetic clay liners have gained widespread acceptance for use in such barrier systems. They are often used as a component of primary and secondary base liners or final cover systems in municipal solid-waste landfills as well as in regulated industrial storage and mining waste-disposal facilities.

This book gives a comprehensive and authoritative review of the current state of practice on geosynthetic clay liners in waste containments. It provides an insight into individual materials (bentonite and the associated geosynthetics) and the manufacturing processes. This is followed by the coverage of important topics such as hydraulic conductivity, chemical compatibility, contaminant transport, gas migration, shear strength and slope stability, and field performance.

Table of Contents

1. Background and overview of geosynthetic clay liners

  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Bentonite
  • Geotextiles
  • Geomembranes
  • Other associated materials
  • GCL manufacturing
  • Current GCL products
  • Nonreinforced GCLs
  • Reinforced GCLs
  • Test methods and properties
  • Physical properties
  • Hydraulic properties
  • Mechanical properties
  • Endurance properties
  • Generic specification for GCLs
  • Equivalency issues
  • Summary
  • Acknowledgements
  • References

2. Durability and lifetime of the geotextile fibers of geosynthetic clay liners

  • Introduction and background
  • Structure and degradation of polymer fibers
  • Polymers used for GCL fiber reinforcement
  • Fiber configuration of GCL reinforcement
  • Oxidative effects on polymer structure
  • Tertiary carbon atoms
  • Crystallinity
  • Orientation
  • Antioxidants depletion mechanisms
  • Chemical reactions
  • Physical loss
  • Specific surface area
  • External environmental effects on oxidation
  • Energy level
  • Oxygen concentration
  • Liquid chemistry
  • Applied fiber stresses
  • Annealing
  • Durability evaluation and specification
  • Performance testing
  • Incubation methods for subsequent index testing
  • Index test methods and procedures
  • Geomembranes and geofilm
  • Summary and conclusions
  • Polymer structure, degradation and stabilization
  • Laboratory performance incubation and testing
  • Index testing with a suggested specification
  • Conclusion and recommendation
  • Acknowledgement
  • References

3. Mineralogy and engineering properties of Bentonite

  • Introduction
  • Mineralogy of smectite
  • Crystalline structure
  • Morphology and fabric
  • Layer charge
  • Exchangeable cations
  • Sodium activation of bentonites
  • Adsorption and swelling behavior
  • Short-range hydration mechanisms
  • Crystalline and osmotic swelling regimes
  • Crystalline swelling
  • Osmotic swelling
  • Engineering properties and their measurement
  • Mineralogical analysis
  • Cation exchange capacity
  • Surface area
  • Particle and granule size distribution
  • Water content
  • Swell index
  • pH, electrical conductivity and carbonate content
  • Fluid loss
  • Closing remarks
  • References

4. Hydraulic conductivity of geosynthetic clay liners

  • Geosynthetic clay liners in bottom liners and top covers
  • Definitions
  • Hydraulic conductivity
  • Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity
  • Permittivity
  • Intrinsic permeability
  • Hydraulic conductivity testing
  • Types of permeameters
  • Critical issues
  • Intact GCLs
  • Why do GCLs provide extremely low levels of hydraulic conductivity?
  • Hydraulic conductivity of different types of GCLs
  • Testing conditions
  • Overlapping GCLs and other special situations
  • Overlapping GCLs
  • Durability against environmental effects
  • Chemical compatibility
  • Clay-chemical and bentonite-chemical interactions
  • Consideration of the testing conditions
  • Effects of inorganic chemicals – concentration and valence of cations
  • Effects of waste leachates
  • Effect of the sequence of permeants
  • Modified bentonites
  • Acknowledgments
  • References

5. Contaminant transport through GCL-based liner systems

  • Introduction
  • Modeling contaminant transport through GCLs
  • Advection
  • Diffusion
  • Sorption
  • Establishing diffusion and sorption parameters for GCLs
  • Experimental procedures and data interpretation
  • Specified volume diffusion (SVD) test: Inorganic contaminants
  • Constant stress diffusion (CSD) apparatus: Inorganic contaminants
  • Volatile organic compound (VOC) diffusion testing
  • Factors influencing diffusion and sorption coefficients
  • Effect of eB on diffusion coefficient: Inorganic contaminants
  • Effect of type of GCL manufacture on inorganic diffusion coefficients
  • Different types of dissolved contaminants in contact with the GCL
  • Inorganic contaminants
  • Organic contaminants
  • Effect of temperature on volatile organic compound diffusion and
  • sorption coefficients
  • Constant stress vs specified volume diffusion testing
  • Summary of diffusion and sorption coefficients to use for preliminary designs
  • Contaminant migration assessments of GCL liner systems
  • Equivalency of GCL and CCL liner systems
  • Assessing GCL/CCL equivalency for municipal solid waste landfills: Example
  • Conclusions
  • References

6. Chemico-osmosis and solute transport through Geosynthetic clay liners

  • Introduction
  • Thermodynamics of irreversible processes
  • Experimental data
  • Physical interpretation of transport parameters
  • Role played by osmotic phenomena in contaminant transport through GCLs
  • Conclusions
  • References

7. Gas permeability of geosynthetic clay liners

  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Gas transport due to advection
  • Gas permeameter
  • Gas permeability
  • Effect of moisture content
  • Effect of hydration and desiccation
  • Effect of wet-dry cycles and ion exchange
  • Conclusions

8. Internal and interface shear strength of geosynthetic clay liners

  • Introduction
  • Materials
  • GCL reinforcement types
  • Geomembrane texturing types
  • GCL Shear strength testing equipment
  • Shear strength testing alternatives
  • Specimen size for the direct shear device
  • GCL specimen confinement for the direct shear device
  • Normal and shear load application for the direct shear device
  • Testing procedures
  • Moisture conditioning
  • Shearing procedures
  • GCL Internal shear strength
  • Shear stress-displacement behavior
  • Preliminary shear strength overview
  • Variables affecting GCL internal shear strength
  • Effect of normal stress
  • GCL Reinforcement
  • Moisture conditioning
  • Shear displacement rate
  • GCL internal shear strength variability
  • GCL-GM Interface shear strength
  • Shear stress-displacement behavior
  • Preliminary GCL-GM interface shear strength overview
  • Variables affecting GCL internal shear strength
  • Normal stress effects
  • Effects of GCL reinforcement type and GM polymer
  • Effect of GM texturing
  • Moisture conditioning
  • Shear displacement rate
  • GCL internal shear strength variability
  • Laboratory and field shear strength comparisons
  • Conclusions
  • References

9. Slope stability with geosynthetic clay liners

  • Introduction
  • Methods of analysis
  • Simplified wedge procedures
  • Possible failure surfaces
  • Representative cross-sections and three-dimensional geometries
  • Effective normal stresses
  • Displacement and strain compatibility
  • Seismic loads
  • Design criteria
  • Design shear strength for GCLs
  • Unconsolidated versus consolidated bentonite
  • Undrained versus drained shear
  • Peak versus residual shear strength
  • Internal versus interface shear strength
  • Summary of design shear strength
  • Approaches to mitigate stability problems
  • Flattening slope
  • Buttressing slope
  • Reinforcing slope
  • Reducing fluid pressures
  • Replacing weak shear surfaces
  • Reducing consequences of failure
  • Design examples
  • Example cover slope
  • Design check for base case
  • Design check for conservative and extreme cases
  • Example base liner slope
  • Design check for final closure geometry
  • Design check for interim waste filling geometry
  • Example liner construction
  • Conclusions
  • References

10. Hydrologic performance of final covers containing

  • Introduction
  • Covers relying solely on a GCL
  • Georgswerder study in Germany
  • Esch-Belval study in Luxembourg
  • Aurach study in Germany
  • Wisconsin study in USA
  • Covers with a GCL-composite barrier
  • Wisconsin study in USA
  • California study in USA
  • Oregon study in USA
  • Practical implications
  • Cation exchange and hydraulic conductivity
  • Promoting hydration and preventing dehydration
  • Conditions precluding cation exchange and increases in hydraulic conductivity
  • Recommended usage of GCLs in final covers
  • Acknowledgement
  • References

11. Oxygen diffusion through geosynthetic clay liners

  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Oxygen diffusion measurement
  • Oxygen diffusion coefficient
  • Concluding remarks
  • References

12. Field observations of GCL behaviour

  • Introduction
  • GCL performance in composite liner systems
  • Case histories of field performance
  • Physical integrity
  • Containment capability
  • Conclusions
  • References

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