Geotechnical Engineering : Principles and Practices of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering book cover
1st Edition

Geotechnical Engineering
Principles and Practices of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering

ISBN 9780824708733
Published October 25, 2002 by CRC Press
1056 Pages

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Book Description

A must have reference for any engineer involved with foundations, piers, and retaining walls, this remarkably comprehensive volume illustrates soil characteristic concepts with examples that detail a wealth of practical considerations, It covers the latest developments in the design of drilled pier foundations and mechanically stabilized earth retaining wall and explores a pioneering approach for predicting the nonlinear behavior of laterally loaded long vertical and batter piles.

As complete and authoritative as any volume on the subject, it discusses soil formation, index properties, and classification; soil permeability, seepage, and the effect of water on stress conditions; stresses due to surface loads; soil compressibility and consolidation; and shear strength characteristics of soils.

While this book is a valuable teaching text for advanced students, it is one that the practicing engineer will continually be taking off the shelf long after school lets out. Just the quick reference it affords to a huge range of tests and the appendices filled with essential data, makes it an essential addition to an civil engineering library.

Table of Contents

General Remarks
A Brief Historical Development
Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering
Soil Formation and Characterization
Rock Classification
Formation of Soils
General Types of Soils
Soil Particle Size and Shape
Composition of Clay Minerals
Structure of Clay Minerals
Clay Particle–Water Relations
Soil Mass Structure
Soil Phase Relationships, Index Properties and Classification
Soil Phase Relationships
Mass–Volume Relationships
Weight–Volume Relationships
Comments on Soil Phase Relationships
Index Properties of Soils
The Shape and Size of Particles
Sieve Analysis
The Hydrometer Method of Analysis
Grain Size Distribution Curves
Relative Density of Cohesionless Soils
Consistency of Clay Soils
Determination of Atterberg Limits
Discussion on Limits and Indices
Plasticity Chart
General Considerations for Classification of Soils
Field Identification of Soils
Classification of Soils
Textural Soil Classification
AASHTO Soil Classification System
Unified Soil Classification System (USCS)
Comments on the Systems of Soil Classification
Soil Permeability and Seepage
Soil Permeability
Darcy’s Law
Discharge and Seepage Velocities
Methods of Determination of Hydraulic Conductivity of Soils
Constant Head Permeability Test
Falling Head Permeability Test
Direct Determination of k of Soils in Place by Pumping Test
Borehole Permeability Tests
Approximate Values of the Hydraulic Conductivity of Soils
Hydraulic Conductivity on Stratified Layers of Soils
Empirical Correlations for Hydraulic Conductivity
Hydraulic Conductivity of Rocks by Packer Method
Laplace Equation
Flow Net Construction
Determination of Quantity of Seepage
Determination of Seepage Pressure
Determination of Uplift Pressure
Seepage Flow Through Homogeneous Earth Dams
Flow Net Consisting of Conjugate Confocal Parabolas
Piping Failure
Effective Stress and Pore Water Pressure
Stresses When No Flow Takes Place Through the Saturated Soil Mass
Stresses When Flow Takes Place Through the Soil from Top to Bottom
Stresses When Flow Takes Place Through the Soil from Bottom to Top
Effective Pressure Due to Capillary Water Rise in Soil
Stress Distribution in Soils Due to Surface Loads
Boussinesq’s Formula for Point Loads
Westergaard’s Formula for Point Loads
Line Loads
Strip Loads
Stresses Beneath the Corner of a Rectangular Foundation
Stresses Under Uniformly Loaded Circular Footing
Vertical Stress Beneath Loaded Areas of Irregular Shape
Embankment Loadings
Approximate Methods for Computing σz
Pressure Isobars
Compressibility and Consolidation
The Standard One-Dimensional Consolidation Test
Pressure-Void Ratio Curves
Determination of Preconsolidation Pressure
e-log p Field Curves for Normally Consolidated and Overconsolidated Clays of Low to Medium Sensitivity
Computation of Consolidation Settlement
Settlement Due to Secondary Compression
Rate of One-Dimensional Consolidation Theory of Terzaghi
Determination of the Coefficient of Consolidation
Rate of Settlement Due to Consolidation
Two- and Three-Dimensional Consolidation Problems
Shear Strength of Soil
Basic Concept of Shearing Resistance and Shearing Strength
The Coulomb Equation
Methods of Determining Shear Strength Parameters
Shear Test Apparatus
Stress Condition at a Point in a Soil Mass
Stress Conditions in Soil During Triaxial Compression Test
Relationship Between the Principal Stresses and Cohesion c
Mohr Circle of Stress
Mohr Circle of Stress When a Prismatic Element is Subjected to Normal and Shear Stresses
Mohr Circle of Stress for a Cylindrical Specimen Compression Test
Mohr-Coulomb Failure Theory
Mohr Diagram for Triaxial Compression Test at Failure
Mohr Diagram for a Direct Shear Test at Failure
Effective Stresses
Shear Strength Equation in Terms of Effective Principal Stresses
Stress-Controlled and Strain-Controlled Tests
Types of Laboratory Tests
Shearing Strength Tests on Sand
Unconsolidated-Undrained Test
Unconfined Compression Tests
Consolidated-Undrained Test on Saturated Clay
Consolidated-Drained Shear Strength Test
Pore Pressure Parameters Under Undrained Loading
Vane Shear Tests
Other Methods for Determining Undrained Shear Strength of Cohesive Soils
The Relationship Between Undrained Shear Strength and Effective Overburden Pressure
General Comments
 Questions and Problems
Soil Exploration
Boring of Holes
Sampling in Soil
Rock Core Sampling
Standard Penetration Test
SPT Values Related to Relative Density of Cohesionless Soils
SPT Values Related to Consistency of Clay Soil
Static Cone Penetration Test (CPT)
The Flat Dilatometer Test
Field Vane Shear Test (VST)
Field Plate Load Test (PLT)
Geophysical Exploration
Planning of Soil Exploration
Execution of Soil Exploration Program
Stability of Slopes
General Considerations and Assumptions in the Analysis
Factor of Safety
Stability Analysis of Infinite Slopes in Sand
Stability Analysis of Infinite Slopes in Clay
Methods of Stability Analysis of Slopes of Finite Height
Plane Surface of Failure
Circular Surface of Failure
Failure Under Undrained Conditions (φ= 0)
Friction-Circle Method
Taylor’s Stability Number
Tension Cracks
Stability Analysis by Method of Slices for Steady Seepage
Bishop’s Simplified Method of Slices
Bishop and Morgenstern Method for Slope Analysis
Morgenstern Method of Analysis for Rapid Drawdown Condition
Spencer Method of Analysis
Lateral Earth Pressure
Lateral Earth Pressure Theory
Lateral Earth Pressure for at Rest Condition
Rankine’s States of Plastic Equilibrium for Cohesionless Soils
Rankine’s Earth Pressure Against Smooth Vertical Wall with Cohesionless Backfill
Rankine’s Active Earth Pressure with Cohesive Backfill
Rankine’s Passive Earth Pressure with Cohesive Backfill
Coulomb’s Earth Pressure Theory for Sand for Active State
Coulomb’s Earth Pressure Theory for Sand For Passive State
Active Pressure by Culmann’s Method for Cohesionless Soils
Lateral Pressures by Theory of Elasticity for Surcharge Loads on the Surface of Backfill
Curved Surfaces of Failure for Computing Passive Earth Pressure
Coefficients of Passive Earth Pressure Tables and Graphs
Lateral Earth Pressure on Retaining Walls During Earthquakes
Shallow Foundation I: Ultimate Bearing Capacity
The Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Soil
Some of the Terms Defined
Types of Failure in Soil
An Overview of Bearing Capacity Theories
Tarzaghi’s Bearing Capacity Theory
Skempton’s Bearing Capacity Factor Nc
Effect of Water Table on Bearing Capacity
The General Bearing Capacity Equation
Effect of Soil Compressibility on Bearing Capacity of Soil
Bearing Capacity of Foundations Subjected to Eccentric Loads
Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Footings Based on SPT Values (N)
The CPT Method of Determining Ultimate Bearing Capacity
Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Footings Resting on Stratified Deposits of Soil
Bearing Capacity of Foundations on Top of a Slope
Foundations on Rock
Case History of Failure of the Transcona Grain Elevator
Shallow Foundation II: Safe Bearing Pressure and Settlement Calculation
Field Plate Load Tests
Effect of Size of Footings on Settlement
Design Charts from SPT Values for Footings on Sand
Empirical Equations Based on SPT Values for Footings on Cohesionless Soils
Safe Bearing Pressure from Empirical Equations Based on CPT Values for Footings on Cohesionless Soil
Foundation Settlement
Evaluation of Modulus of Elasticity
Methods of Computing Settlements
Elastic Settlement Beneath the Corner of a Uniformly Loaded Flexible Area Based on the Theory of Elasticity
Janbu, Bjerrum and Kjaernli’s Method of Determining Elastic Settlement Under Undrained Conditions
Schmertmann’s Method of Calculating Settlement in Granular Soils by Using CPT Values
Estimation of Consolidation Settlement by Using Oedometer Test Data
Skempton–Bjerrum Mthod of Calculating Consolidation Settlement (1957)
Shallow Foundation III: Combined Footings and Mat Foundations
Safe Bearing Pressures for Mat Foundations in Sand and Clay
Eccentric Loading
The Coefficient of Subgrade Reaction
Proportion of Cantilever Footing
Design of Combined Footings by Rigid Method (Conventional Method)
Design of Mat Foundation by Rigid Method
Design of Combined Footings by Elastic Line Method
Design of Mat Foundations by Elastic Plate Method
Floating Foundations
Deep Foundation I: Pile Foundation
Classification of Piles
Types of Piles According to the Method of Installation
Uses of Piles
Selection of Pile
Installation of Piles
 Part A: Vertical Loading Capacity of a Single Vertical Pile
General Considerations
Methods of Determining Ultimate Load Bearing Capacity of a Single Vertical Pile
General Theory for Ultimate Bearing Capacity
Ultimate Bearing Capacity in Cohesionless Soils
Critical Depth
Tomlinson’s Solution for Qb in Sand
Meyerhof’s Method of Determining Qb for Piles in Sand
Vesic’s Method of Determining Qb
Janbu’s Method of Determining Qb
Coyle and Castello’s Method of Estimating Qb in Sand
The Ultimate Skin Resistance of a Single Pile in Cohesionless Soil
Skin Resistance Qf by Coyle and Castello Method (1981)
Static Bearing Capacity of Piles in Clay Soil
Bearing Capacity of Piles in Granular Soils Based on SPT Value
Bearing Capacity of Piles Based on Static Cone Penetration Tests (CPT)
Bearing Capacity of a Single Pile by Load Test
Pile Bearing Capacity from Dynamic Pile Driving Formulas
Bearing Capacity of Piles Founded on a Rocky Bed
Uplift Resistance of Piles
.   Part B: Pile Group
Number and Spacing of Piles in a Group
Pile Group Efficiency
Vertical Bearing Capacity of Pile Groups Embedded in Sands and Gravels
Settlement of Piles in Pile Groups in Sands and Gravels
Settlement of Pile Groups in Cohesive Soils
Allowable Loads on Groups of Piles
Negative Friction
Uplift Capacity of a Pile Group
Deep Foundation II: Behavior of Laterally Loaded Vertical and Batter Piles
Winkler’s Hypothesis
The Differential Equation
Non-Dimensional Solutions for Vertical Piles Subjected to Lateral Loads
p–y Curves for the Solution of Laterally Loaded Piles
Brom’s Solutions for Laterally Loaded Piles
A Direct Method for Solving the Non-Linear Behavior of Laterally Loaded Flexible Pile Problems
Case Studies for Laterally Loaded Vertical Piles in Sand
Case Studies for Laterally Loaded Vertical Piles in Clay
Behavior of Laterally Loaded Batter Piles in Sand
Deep Foundation III: Drilled Pier Foundations
Types of Drilled Piers
Advantages and Disadvantages of Drilled Pier Foundations
Methods of Construction
Design Considerations
Load Transfer Mechanism
Vertical Bearing Capacity of Drilled Piers
The General Bearing Capacity Equation for the Base Resistance qb (= qmax)
Bearing Capacity Equations for the Base in Cohesive Soil
Bearing Capacity Equation for the Base in Granular Soil
Bearing Capacity Equations for the Base in Cohesive IGM or Rock
The Ultimate Skin Resistance of Cohesive and Intermediate Materials
Ultimate Skin Resistance in Cohesionless Soil and Gravelly Sands
Ultimate Side and Total Resistance in Rock
Estimation of Settlements of Drilled Piers at Working Loads
Uplift Capacity of Drilled Piers
Lateral Bearing Capacity of Drilled Piers
Case Study of a Drilled Pier Subjected to Lateral Loads
Foundation on Collapsible and Expansive Soils
General Considerations
Part A: Collapsible Soils
General Observations
Collapse Potential and Settlement
Computation of Collapse Settlement
Foundation Design
Treatment Methods for Collapsible Soils
 Part B: Expansive Soils
Distribution of Expansive Soils
General Characteristics of Swelling Soils
Clay Mineralogy and Mechanism of Swelling
Definition of Some Parameters
Evaluation of the Swelling Potential of Expansive Soils by Single Index Method
Classification of Swelling Soils by Indirect Measurement
Swelling Pressure by Direct Measurement
Effect of Initial Moisture Content and Initial Dry Density on Swelling Pressure
Estimating the Magnitude of Swelling
Design of Foundations in Swelling Soils
Drilled Pier Foundations
Elimination of Swelling
Concrete and Mechanically Stabilized Earth Retaining Walls
Part A: Concrete Retaining Walls
Conditions Under Whicn Rankine and Coulomb Formulas Are Applicable to Retaining Walls Under the Active State
Proportioning of Retaining Walls
Earth Pressure Charts for Retaining Walls
Stability of Retaining Walls
Part B: Mechanically Stabilized Earth Retaining Walls
General Considerations
Backfill Reinforcing Materials
Construction Details
Design Considerations for a Mechanically Stabilized Earth Wall
Design Method
External Stability
Examples of Measured Lateral Earth Pressures
Sheet Pile Walls and Braced Cuts
Sheet Pile Structures
Free Cantilever Sheet Pile Walls
Depth of Embedment of Cantilever Walls in Sandy Soils
Depth of Embedment of Cantilever Walls in Cohesive Soils
Anchored Bulkhead: Free-Earth Support Method—Depth of Embedment of Anchored Sheet Piles in Granular Soils
Design Charts for Anchored Bulkheads in Sand
Moment Reduction for Anchored Sheet Pile Walls
Anchorage of Bulkheads
Braced Cuts
Lateral Earth Pressure Distribution on Braced-Cuts
Stability of Braced Cuts in Saturated Clay
Bjerrum and Eide Method of Analysis
Piping Failures in Sand Cuts
Soil Improvement
Mechanical Compaction
Laboratory Tests on Compaction
Effect of Compaction on Engineering Behavior
Field Compaction and Control
Compaction for Deeper Layers of Soil
Sand Compaction Piles and Stone Columns
Soil Stabilization by the Use of Admixtures
Soil Stabilization by Injection of Suitable Grouts
Appendix A: SI Units in Geotechnical Engineering
Appendix B: Slope Stability Charts and Tables

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“Each chapter … represents an important and modern approaching of the principal aspects … in the domain of soil mechanics and foundations. … The author used a large number of applications to illustrate the importance of the theory for the future engineer … an interesting manner to capture the attention [of undergraduate] students. … also useful for the Master and PhD students [and for] practicing engineers … .  This book includes theoretical and practical aspects that present interest for the teachers and can be used in teaching process at our Department of Bridges, Railways, Roads, and Foundations.”
—Professor Eng. Vasile MUSAT, Technical University of Iasi  in the Isai Polytechnic Magazine, Vol. 17 1 / 4, March/December 2005