Geothermal Systems and Energy Resources : Turkey and Greece book cover
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Geothermal Systems and Energy Resources
Turkey and Greece





ISBN 9781138074460
Published November 29, 2018 by CRC Press
336 Pages

 
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Book Description

In the region comprising Turkey and Greece, people have been using water from geothermal sources for bathing and washing of clothes since ancient times. This region falls within the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt and hence is a locus of active volcanism and tectonism and experiences frequent seismic events. This volcanic and tectonic activity has given rise to over 1500 geothermal springs. Its importance was recognized decades ago and the geothermal water is now being utilized for district heating, industrial processing, domestic water supply, balneology and electric power generation. The geothermal potential in this region is large. In Turkey alone it is estimated to be more than 31500 MWt while the proven potential is 4078 MWt. At present 2084 MWt is being utilized for direct applications in Turkey and 135 MWt in Greece. In Turkey electricity is produced for 166 MW installed capacity, whereas in Greece geothermal energy is presently not used for electricity production despite its potential.

This book discusses the geochemical evolution of the thermal waters and thermal gases in terms of the current volcano-tectonic setting and associated geological framework that makes the region very important to the geothermal scientific community. The book explains, in a didactic way, the possible applications, depending on local conditions and scales, and it presents new and stimulating ideas for future developments of this renewable energy source. Additionally, the book discusses the role(s) of possible physicochemical processes in deep hydrothermal systems, the volatile provenance and relative contributions of mantle and crustal components to total volatile inventories. It provides the reader with a thorough understanding of the geothermal systems of this region and identifi es the most suitable solutions for specifi c tasks and needs elsewhere in the world. It is the fi rst time that abundant information and data from this region, obtained from intensive research during the last few decades, is unveiled to the international geothermal community. Thus, an international readership, in the professional and academic sectors, as well as in key institutions that deal with geothermal energy, will benefit from the knowledge from geothermal research and experiences obtained from the Aegean Region.

Table of Contents

About the book series
Editorial board
Contributors
Preface by Ladislaus Rybach
Editors’ foreword
About the editors
Acknowledgements

1. Chemical and isotopic constraints on the origin of thermal waters in Anatolia, Turkey: fluid–mineral equilibria approach
Halim Mutlu, Nilgün Güleç & David R. Hilton
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Geological setting
1.3 Water chemistry
1.4 Geothermometry applications
1.4.1 Chemical geothermometers
1.4.2 Na–K–Mg diagram
1.5 Stable isotopes
1.5.1 δ18O–δD compositions
1.5.2 δ34S−δ13C compositions
1.6 Mineral equilibrium calculations

2. Gas geochemistry of Turkish geothermal fluids: He–CO2 systematics in relation to active tectonics and volcanism
Nilgün Güleç, Halim Mutlu & David R. Hilton
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Framework of tectonic, volcanic, and geothermal activities
2.3 He–CO2 systematics
2.4 Discussion
2.4.1 Physicochemical processes in hydrothermal systems
2.4.2 Volatile provenance: relative contributions of mantle and crustal components
2.4.3 Spatial distribution of mantle volatiles: relation to tectonic and volcanic activities
2.5 Conclusions

3. Geothermal fields and thermal waters of Greece: an overview
Nicolaos Lambrakis, Konstantina Katsanou & George Siavalas
3.1 Prologue–historical background
3.2 Introduction
3.3 The paleogeographical setting of Greece
3.4 Volcanism of Greece
3.5 The distribution of heat flow and cause of geothermal anomalies in Greece
3.5.1 Back-arc regions
3.5.2 Volcanic arc of the South Aegean Sea
3.5.3 Western Greece
3.6 Geological setting of the major geothermal fields
3.6.1 Back-arc geothermal fields of Greece
3.6.2 Volcanic arc of South Aegean Sea
3.6.3 Low-enthalpy geothermal fields of western Greece
3.7 Chemical composition of thermal and mineral waters
3.7.1 Materials and methods
3.7.2 Hydrochemistry of geothermal fields
3.7.2.1 Hydrochemistry of back-arc geothermal fields
3.7.2.2 Hydrochemistry of Aegean volcanic arc geothermal fields
3.7.2.3 Hydrochemistry of geothermal fields from western Greece
3.7.2.4 Minor and trace elements of Greek thermal waters
3.8 Conclusions

4. Geological setting, geothermal conditions and hydrochemistry of south and southeastern Aegean geothermal systems
Maria Papachristou, Konstantinos Voudouris, Stylianos Karakatsanis, Walter D’Alessandro & Konstantinos Kyriakopoulos
4.1 Introduction
4.2 General geological setting
4.2.1 South Aegean Active Volcanic Arc
4.3 Regional geological and geothermal setting
4.3.1 Milos
4.3.2 Kimolos
4.3.3 Santorini
4.3.4 Nisyros
4.3.5 Kos
4.3.6 Ikaria Island
4.3.7 Chios Island
4.4 Sampling and data analysis
4.5 Results
4.5.1 Major elements composition
4.5.2 Hydrochemistry and water types
4.5.2.1 Milos Island
4.5.2.2 Kimolos Island
4.5.2.3 Santorini Island
4.5.2.4 Nisyros Island
4.5.2.5 Kos Island
4.5.2.6 Ikaria Island
4.5.2.7 Chios Island
4.5.3 Trace elements composition
4.6 Statistical analysis
4.6.1 Cluster analysis
4.6.2 Factor analysis
4.7 Discussion and conclusion

5. Application of hydrogeochemical techniques in geothermal systems; examples from the eastern Mediterranean region
Aysen Davraz
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Hydrogeochemical evaluation of geothermal fluids
5.2.1 Collection of samples
5.2.2 In situ measurements
5.2.3 Chemical analyses
5.2.4 Data interpretation
5.2.4.1 Case studies in the eastern Mediterranean region
5.3 Processes affecting geothermal fluid composition
5.3.1 The saturation indices of geothermal waters in the eastern Mediterranean region
5.4 Geothermometry
5.4.1 Chemical geothermometers
5.4.1.1 Silica geothermometry
5.4.1.2 Cation geothermometry
5.4.2 Isotope geothermometers
5.4.2.1 Oxygen isotope geothermometry
5.4.3 Gas geothermometers
5.4.4 Geothermometer applications in the eastern Mediterranean region
5.5 Stable isotope applications
5.5.1 Results from the stable isotope analysis in the eastern Mediterranean region
5.6 Conclusions

6. Hydrochemical investigations of thermal and mineral waters in the Turgutlu-Salihli-Ala¸sehir plain (Gediz graben), western Turkey
Tugbanur Özen & Gültekin Tarcan
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Geological and hydrogeological settings
6.3 General information of the geothermal areas
6.4 Hydrochemical settings
6.4.1 Geothermometry applications
6.4.1.1 Chemical geothermometers
6.4.1.2 The ternary (Na–K–Mg) diagram
6.4.2 Mineral saturation
6.5 Conclusions

7. Electrically conductive structures and geothermal model in Sakarya-Göynük area in eastern Marmara region inferred from magnetotelluric data
Ilyas Çaglar
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Near-surface and deep electrical structure
7.3 Geoelectric structure and geothermal model
7.4 Conclusion

8. Use of sulfur isotopes on low-enthalpy geothermal systems in Aya¸s-Beypazarı (Ankara), central Anatolia, Turkey
Mehmet Çelik
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Geology and hydrogeology
8.3 Hydrochemical and isotopic studies
8.3.1 Hydrochemical and isotopic evaluation
8.3.2 Sulfur isotope evaluation
8.4 Results

9. Geochemistry of thermal waters in eastern Anatolia: a case study from Diyadin (Agrı) and Ercis-Zilan (Van)
Suzan Pasvanoglu
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Site description
9.2.1 Diyadin (Agrı) area
9.2.2 Zilan (Van-Ercis) area
9.3 Field survey–methodology–analysis
9.4 Geological setting
9.4.1 Geology of Diyadin geothermal field
9.4.2 Geology of Zilan geothermal field
9.5 Hydrgeology
9.5.1 Diyadin (Agri) geothermal field
9.5.2 Zilan (Erçis) geothermal field
9.6 Results and discussion
9.6.1 Water chemistry 159
9.6.2 Trace element contents of Diyadin waters
9.6.3 Geothermometers
9.6.4 Isotopic composition of waters
9.7 Conclusion

10. Balçova geothermal field district heating system: lessons learned from 16 years of application
Mahmut Parlaktuna
10.1 Geographical setting, geology, and geochemistry of the field
10.2 Development of the field
10.3 Utilization of the field
10.4 Lessons learned
10.4.1 Pipeline network
10.4.2 Decline in reservoir pressure
10.4.3 Pricing policy
10.5 Current status of the field

11. Rapid development of geothermal power generation in Turkey
Murat Karadas & Gülden Gökçen Akkurt
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Present status of geothermal power plants in Turkey (2013)
11.3 Characteristics of geothermal resources in Aegean region 1
11.4 Types of geothermal power plants for reservoir characteristics of Aegean region
11.4.1 Single and double flash geothermal power plants
11.4.2 Binary cycle geothermal power plants
11.5 Geothermal power plants in Turkey
11.5.1 Kizildere geothermal power plant
11.5.1.1 Brief historical development of Denizli-Kizildere geothermal field
11.5.1.2 Power generation
11.5.1.3 Scaling problems in Kizildere geothermal power plant
11.5.1.4 Future of Denizli-Kizildere geothermal field
11.5.2 Dora geothermal power plants
11.5.2.1 Brief historical development of Salavatlı geothermal field
11.5.2.2 Dora-1 geothermal power plant
11.5.2.3 Power generation
11.5.2.4 Performance assessment of the plant
11.5.3 Germencik double flash geothermal power plant
11.5.3.1 Brief historical development of Germencik-Ömerbeyli geothermal field
11.5.3.2 Power generation of the plant
11.5.4 Tuzla geothermal power plant
11.5.4.1 Brief historical development of tuzla geothermal field
11.5.4.2 Power generation and performance assessment of the plant
11.5.4.3 Scaling problems of the plant
11.5.5 Other geothermal power plants
11.5.5.1 Bereket geothermal power plant
11.5.5.2 Dora-2 geothermal power plant
11.5.5.3 Irem geothermal power plant
11.6 Conclusion

12. Scaling problem of the geothermal system in Turkey
Irmak Dogan, Mustafa M. Demir & Alper Baba
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Geothermal energy in Turkey
12.3 Scaling in geothermal system of Turkey
12.4 Conclusion

13. Exergetic and exergoeconomic aspects of ground-source (geothermal) heat pumps in Turkey
Arif Hepbasli & Ebru Hancioglu Kuzgunkaya
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Energetic, exergetic, and exergoeconomic relations
13.2.1 Mass, energy, entropy, and exergy balances
13.2.2 Energy and exergy efficiencies
13.2.3 Exergetic improvement potential
13.2.4 Some thermodynamic parameters
13.2.5 Exergoeconomic analysis relations
13.3 Exergetically and exegoeconomically analyzed GSHPS
13.3.1 Exergetically analyzed GSHP systems
13.3.2 Greenhouses
13.3.3 Drying
13.3.4 Exergoeconomically analyzed GSHP systems
13.4 Concluding remarks

14. Application of geophysical methods in Gulbahce geothermal site, Urla-Izmir, western Anatolia
Oya Pamukçu, Tolga Gönenç, Petek Sındırgı & Alper Baba
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Geology and tectonic properties of study area
14.3 Geophysical studies
14.3.1 Gravity and magnetic
14.3.2 Self-potential
14.3.3 Vertical electrical sounding method
14.4 Result and conclusion

15. Palaeoenvironmental and palynological study of the geothermal area in the Gülbahçe Bay (Aegean Sea, western Turkey)
Mine Sezgül Kayseri-Özer, Bade Pekçetinöz & Erdeniz Özel
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Geological setting and high-resolution shallow seismic study (3.5 khz)
15.3 Important plants and nonpollen palynomorphs of quaternary in Gülbahçe Bay
15.3.1 Pollen
15.3.2 Nonpollens
15.4 Corals in Gülbahçe Bay
15.5 Palynology
15.5.1 Reference zone
15.5.2 Defining palynomorphs of thermal spring locations from Gülbahçe Bay
15.6 Palaeo environment
15.6.1 Terrestrial condition in the Gülbahçe Bay
15.6.2 Marine condition in the Gülbahçe Bay

Subject index
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Editor(s)

Biography

Professor Alper Baba, born 1970 in Turkey, holds a degree in geology and a doctorate in the field of hydrogeology from the Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir. He has about 20 years of work experience in hydrogeological and environmental geology problems in different part of the world. Since 2010, he has been a professor at Izmir Institute of Technology as a director of Geothermal Energy Research and Application Center. He teaches and conducts research in the field of groundwater contamination, geothermal energy, and hydrogeology. He has coordinated a variety of national and international R&D projects in cooperation with research institutes and companies, among them NATO funded projects. Dr. Baba has been the recipient of the Turkish Academy of Science SuccessfulYoung Scientists Award and the Turkish Geological Engineering Association Gold Medal Award. Dr. Baba is the author of several peer-reviewed scientific publications and contributions to international conferences. Dr. Baba is also the editor of the book Groundwater and Ecosystems and Climate Change and Its Effects onWater Resources, Issues of National and Global Security (both NATO Science Series, Springer).

Jochen Bundschuh (1960, Germany) finished his PhD on numerical modeling of heat transport in aquifers in Tübingen in 1990. He works in geothermics, subsurface and surface hydrology and integrated water resources management, and connected disciplines. From 1993 to 1999, he served as an expert for the German Agency of Technical Cooperation (GTZ) and as a longterm professor for the DAAD (German Academic Exchange Service) in Argentina. From 2001 to 2008, he worked within the framework of the German governmental cooperation (Integrated Expert Program of CIM; GTZ/BA) as adviser–in-mission to Costa Rica at the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE). Here, he assisted the country in evaluation and development of its huge low-enthalpy geothermal resources for power generation. Since 2005, he is an affiliate professor of the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. In 2006, he was elected Vice-President of the International Society of Groundwater for Sustainable Development ISGSD. From 2009 to 2011, he was visiting professor at the Department of Earth Sciences at the National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. By the end of 2011, he was appointed as professor in hydrogeology at the University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Australia, where he leads a working group of 26 researchers working on the wide field of water resources and low/middle enthalpy geothermal resources, water and wastewater treatment, and sustainable and renewable energy resources (http://www.ncea.org.au/groundwater). In November 2012, Prof. Bundschuh was appointed president of the newly established Australian chapter of the International Medical Geology Association (IMGA).
Dr. Bundschuh is author of the books Low-Enthalpy Geothermal Resources for Power Generation (2008) (Balkema/Taylor & Francis/CRC Press) and Introduction to the Numerical Modeling of Groundwater and Geothermal Systems: Fundamentals of Mass, Energy and Solute Transport in Poroelastic Rocks. He is editor of the books Geothermal Energy Resources for Developing Countries (2002), Natural Arsenic in Groundwater (2005), and the two-volume monograph Central America: Geology, Resources and Hazards (2007), Groundwater for Sustainable Development (2008), Natural Arsenic in Groundwater of Latin America (2008). Dr. Bundschuh is editor of the book series Multiphysics Modeling, Arsenic in the Environment, and Sustainable Energy Developments (all Balkema/CRC Press/Taylor & Francis).

Dornadula Chandrasekharam (Chandra: b1948, India), chair professor in the Department of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (IITB) obtained his MSc in Applied Geology (1972) and PhD (1980) from IITB. He has been working in the fields of geothermal energy resources, volcanology, and groundwater pollution, for the past 30 years. Before joining IITB, he worked as a senior scientist at the Centre forWater Resources Development and Management, and Centre for Earth Science Studies,Kerala, India, for 7 years. Hehas held several important positions during his academic and research career. He was a Third World Academy of Sciences (TWAS, Trieste, Italy); visiting professor to Sanaa University, Yemen Republic between 1996 and 2001; senior associate of Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy, from 2002 to 2007; adjunct professor, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan from 2011 to 2012. Recently he has been appointed as a visiting professor to King Saud University of Saudi Arabia. He received the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP, Trieste, Italy) Fellowship to conduct research at the Italian National Science Academy (CNR) in 1997. Prof. Chandra extensively conducted research in low-enthalpy geothermal resources in India and is currently the Chairman of M/s GeoSyndicate Power Private Ltd., the only geothermal company in India. He is an elected board member of the International Geothermal Association and has widely represented the country in several international geothermal conferences. He conducted short courses on lowenthalpy geothermal resources in Argentina, Costa Rica, Poland, and China. He has supervised 18 PhD students and published 95 papers in international and 35 papers in national journals of repute and published 5 books in the field of groundwater pollution and geothermal energy resources. His two books on geothermal energy resources—(1) Geothermal Energy Resources for Developing Countries by Balkema Pub. (2002) and (2) Low Enthalpy Geothermal Resources for Power Generation by Taylor & Francis (2008)—are widely read. Prof. Chandra is currently on the Board of Director of (1) Oil and Natural Gas Corporation, (2) Western Coal Fields Ltd., (3) India Rare Earths Ltd., and (4) Mangalore Refineries and Petrochemicals. He has been appointed as the Chairperson of the Geothermal Energy Resources and Management committee constituted by the Department of Sciences and Technology, Government of India.