Geothermal, Wind and Solar Energy Applications in Agriculture and Aquaculture: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Geothermal, Wind and Solar Energy Applications in Agriculture and Aquaculture

1st Edition

Edited by Jochen Bundschuh, Guangnan Chen, D. Chandrasekharam, Janusz Piechocki

CRC Press

362 pages

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The agri-food chain consumes about one third of the world’s energy production with about 12% of it for crop production and nearly 80% for processing, distribution, retail, preparation and cooking. The agri-food chain also accounts for 80-90% of total global freshwater use where 70% alone is for irrigation. Additionally, on a global scale, freshwater production consumes nearly 15% of the entire energy production. It can therefore be argued that making agriculture and the agri-food supply chain independent from fossil fuel use has a huge potential to contribute to global food security and climate protection not only for the next decades but also for the coming century. Provision of secure, accessible and environmentally sustainable supplies of water, energy and food must thus be a priority.

One of the major objectives of the world’s scientists, farmers, decisions makers and industrialists is to overcome the present dependence on fossil fuels in the agro-food sector. This dependency increases the volatility of food prices and affects economic access to sustenance.

This book provides a critical review of recent developments in solar, wind and geothermal energy applications in agriculture and the agro-food sector such as processing, distribution, retail, preparation and cooking.

Table of Contents

Solar, wind and geothermal energy applications in agriculture: back to the future?

Jochen Bundschuh, Guangnan Chen, Barbara Tomaszewska, Noreddine Ghaffour, Shahbaz Mushtaq, Ihsan Hamawand, Kathryn Reardon-Smith, Tek Maraseni, Thomas Banhazi, Hacene Mahmoudi, Mattheus Goosen & Diogenes L. Antille

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Energy demands in agriculture

1.3 The water-energy-food-climate nexus

1.4 Greenhouse gas emissions and carbon footprint of agriculture

1.5 Merging renewables with agriculture: The sustainability approach

1.6 Conclusions

2. Agriculture sector modernization and renewable energy development: perspectives from developing countries

Robert K. Dixon & Ming Yang

2.1 Introduction

2.2 The role of the Global Environment Facility

2.3 Biomass energy

2.4 Combined renewable energy technologies

2.5 Geothermal energy

2.6 Small hydropower

2.7 Off-grid solar photovoltaic

2.8 On-grid solar photovoltaic

2.9 Solar thermal heating

2.10 Solar thermal power

2.11 Wind power

2.12 Summary and conclusions

3. Linking food and nutrition security, urban and peri-urban agriculture, and sustainable energy use: experiences from South America

Deborah Hines & Sarah Balistreri

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Multiple benefits from urban and peri-urban agriculture actions

3.3 Urban agriculture: examples from South America

3.4 Shaping the food and nutrition security agenda

4. Renewable energy use for aquaponics development on a global scale towards sustainable food production

Ragnheidur Thorarinsdottir, Daniel Coaten, Edoardo Pantanella, Charlie Shultz, Henk Stander & Kristin Vala Ragnarsdottir

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Aquaponics technology

4.3 Aquaponics as a sustainable food production method

4.4 Connection to UN Sustainable Development Goals 2015–2030

4.5 Conclusions and future work

5. Renewable energy use and potential in remote central Australia

Yiheyis Maru, Supriya Mathew, Digby Race & Bruno Spandonide

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Renewable energy supply: state and trends in remote Australia

5.3 Case studies from inland remote Australia

5.4 Discussion

5.5 Conclusion

6. Opportunities of adopting renewable energy for the nursery industry in Australia

Guangnan Chen, Erik Schmidt, Tek Maraseni, Jochen Bundschuh, Thomas Banhazi & Diogenes L. Antille

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Energy use in nursery

6.3 Opportunities of adopting alternative energy sources

6.4 Development of online calculator for alternative energy sources

6.5 Case studies

6.6 Conclusion

7. Fundamentals of solar energy

Maciej Klein, Kamil Łapinski, Katarzyna Siuzdak & Adam Cenian

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Photovoltaic effect – principle and operating mechanism of solar cells

7.3 System design: PV direct, grid-tied, stand-alone, grid-tied with battery backup, solar thermal – PVT

7.4 Storage: batteries, capacitors and supercapacitors, operation principle, new development (graphen etc.)

8. Renewable energy technologies for greenhouses in semi-arid climates

Francisco Javier Cabrera, Jorge Antonio Sánchez-Molina, Guillermo Zaragoza, Manuel Pérez-García & Francisco Rodríguez-Díaz

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Greenhouses in semi-arid climates

8.3 Overview of energy demands in greenhouses

8.4 Renewable energies applicable to greenhouses

8.5 Energy savings from crop growth control in greenhouses using optimal controllers

8.6 Conclusions

9. Solar photocatalytic disinfection of water for reuse in irrigation

Pilar Fernández-Ibáñez, María Inmaculada Polo-López, Sixto Malato, Alba Ruiz-Aguirre & Guillermo Zaragoza

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Compound parabolic collectors for water disinfection

9.3 Solar water disinfection (SODIS)

9.4 Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs)

9.5 Disinfection of wastewater effluents by solar treatments

9.6 Improvements in water disinfection by membrane distillation pretreatment

9.7 Concluding remarks and future perspectives

10. Solar PV for water pumping and irrigation

István Patay, István Seres & Jochen Bundschuh

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Energy demand of water pumping

10.3 Energy demand of irrigation methods

10.4 Electric water pumps for water supply and irrigation

10.5 Solar PV panels for pumping

10.6 Design of solar PV-based irrigation

10.7 Solar water pumping in Economic comparison with diesel- and grid electricity-powered pumping

10.8 Case studies

10.9 Conclusions

11. Solar drying

Om Prakash, Anil Kumar &Atul Sharma

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Basics of drying

11.3 Selection of solar dryers for the product

11.4 Types of solar dryers

11.5 Testing of solar dryer

11.6 Energy analysis

11.7 Impact of solar drying on product quality

11.8 Concluding remarks

12. Small-scale wind power energy systems for use in agriculture and similar applications

Wojciech Miaskowski, Krzysztof Nalepa, Paweł Pietkiewicz & Janusz Piechocki

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Assessment of wind parameters for the purpose of wind turbine location

12.3 Types of wind turbines

12.4 Horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs)

12.5 Vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs)

12.6 Strengths and weaknesses of HAWTs and VAWTs

12.7 Applications of wind turbines

12.8 Wind energy solutions for households

12.9 Conclusions

13. Windmills for water pumping, irrigation and drainage

István Patay & Norbert Schrempf

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Wind technologies for water pumping

13.3 Applications

14. Lakes as a heat source for heat pumps – a model study to determine the ecological impact of summer heat transfer

Renata Brzozowska, Maciej Neugebauer & Janusz Piechocki

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Heat pumps

14.3 Lake characteristics and anthropogenic pressure of heat pumps on lakes

14.4 Calculations

14.5 Conclusions

About the Editors

Jochen Bundschuh (1960, Germany), finished his PhD on numerical modeling of heat transport in aquifers in Tubingen in 1990. He is working in geothermics, subsurface and surface hydrology and integrated water resources management, and connected disciplines. Since 2005, he is an affiliate professor of the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. In 2006, he was elected Vice-President of the International Society of Groundwater for Sustainable Development (ISGSD). From 2009-2011 he was visiting professor at the Department of Earth Sciences at the National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.

Since 2012, Dr. Bundschuh is a professor in hydrogeology at the University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Australia where he leads the Platform for Water in the Nexus of Sustainable Development working in the wide field of water resources and low/middle enthalpy geothermal resources, water and wastewater treatment and sustainable and renewable energy resources.

Dr. Bundschuh is author of the books "Low-Enthalpy Geothermal Resources for Power Generation" (2008) and "Introduction to the Numerical Modeling of Groundwater and Geothermal Systems: Fundamentals of Mass, Energy and Solute Transport in Poroelastic Rocks". He is editor of 18 books and editor of the book series "Multiphysics Modeling", "Arsenic in the Environment", "Sustainable Energy Developments" and "Sustainable Water Developments" (all CRC Press/Balkema, Taylor & Francis Group). Since 2015, he is an editor in chief of the Elsevier journal "Groundwater for Sustainable Development".

Dr. Guangnan Chen graduated from the University of Sydney, Australia, with a PhD degree in 1994. Before joining the University of Southern Queensland as an academic in early 2002, he worked for two years as a post-doctoral fellow and more than five years as a Senior Research Consultant in a private consulting company based in New Zealand. Dr. Chen has extensive experience in conducting both fundamental and applied research. His current research focuses on the sustainable agriculture and energy use. The researches aim to develop a common framework and tools to assess energy uses and greenhouse gas emissions in different agricultural sectors. These projects are funded by various government agencies and farmer organisations. Guangnan has also conducted significant research to compare the life cycle energy consumption of alternative farming systems, including the impact of machinery operation, conservation farming practice, irrigation, and applications of new technologies and alternative and renewable energy.

He has so far published more than 100 papers in international journals and conferences, including one edited book on sustainable energy solutions in agriculture and eight invited book chapters on various topics. He serves as a Section Editor for the International Journal of Agricultural & Biological Engineering (IJABE), and was the Guest Editor of a special issue of the journal of Applied Energy in 2014. He is currently the Secretary of Board of Technical Section IV (Energy in Agriculture), CIGR (Commission Internationale du Genie Rural), which is one of the world’s top professional bodies in agricultural and biosystems engineering.

Dornadula Chandrasekharam is Chair Professor in the Department of Earth Sciences at the Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (IITB). He obtained his MSc in Applied Geology (1972) and PhD (1980) from IITB, and has been working in the fields of geothermal energy resources, volcanology, and groundwater pollution for the past 30 years.

Dornadula extensively conducted research in low-enthalpy geothermal resources in India and is currently the Chairman of M/s GeoSyndicate Power Private Ltd., the only geothermal company in India. He is an elected board member of the International Geothermal Association, and has widely represented the country in several international geothermal conferences. He has supervised 18 PhD students and published 95 papers in international and 35 papers in national journals of repute and published 5 books in the field of groundwater pollution and geothermal energy resources, a book on geothermal energy resources "Geothermal Energy Resources for Developing Countries" (2002) and on "Low Enthalpy Geothermal Resources for Power Generation" (2008).

Janusz Piechocki graduated from the Technical University in Gdansk (Poland) in 1973, finished his PhD in 1981, and is Professor since 1998. He carries out research in the area of agricultural engineering, renewable energy sources, energy, electric engineering, assessment of the economic and energy effectiveness and sustainable energy development with reducing air pollutant emissions systems. Janusz was Vice-Rector of University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn (Poland) in the years 1999-2008 and 2012-2016. He was Dean of Faculty of Technical Sciences at this University in years 2008-2012. He has published over 130 original research papers.

About the Series

Sustainable Energy Developments

ISSN 2164-0645

Renewable energy sources and sustainable policy options, including energy efficiency and energy conservation, can provide long-term solutions for key-problems of industrialized, developing and transition countries by providing clean and domestically available energy and, at the same time, decreasing dependence on fossil fuel imports and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The book series will serve as a multi-disciplinary resource linking renewable energy with human society. The book series fulfils the rapidly growing worldwide interest in sustainable energy solutions. It covers all fields of renewable energy and their possible applications will be addressed not only from a technical point of view, but also from economic, financial, social, political, legislative and regulatory viewpoints.
The book series is considered to become a state-of-the-art source for a large group of readers comprising different stakeholders and professionals, including government and non-governmental organizations and institutions, international funding agencies, universities, public energy institutions, public health and other relevant institutions as well as to civil society.

Editorial Board
Jochen Bundschuh (Series Editor)
University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Australia & Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden
Morgan Bazilian Senior Advisor on Energy and Climate Change to the Director-General, United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO), Vienna, Austria
Maria da Graça Carvalho Member of the European Parliament, Brussels & professor at Instituto Superior Técnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal
Robert K. Dixon Leader, Climate and Chemicals, The Global Environment Facility, The World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes President of the European Renewable Energies Federation (EREF); Board Member of the German Renewable Energy Federation (BEE), Berlin, Germany
Veena Joshi Senior Advisor-Energy, Section Climate Change and Development, Embassy of Switzerland, New Delhi, India
Eric Martinot Senior Research Director, Institute for Sustainable Energy Policies (ISEP), Nakano, Tokyo & Tsinghua University, Tsinghua-BP Clean Energy Research and Education Center, Beijing, China

FIELDS COVERED• Access to clean energy • Bioenergy • Biofuels • Bio-inspired solar fuel production • Capacity building and communication strategies • Climate policy • Electric, hybrid plug-in, and hybrid vehicles • Energizing development • Energy autonomy and cities • Energy behavior • Energy conservation • Energy efficiency • Energy for the poor: The renewable options for rural electrification • Energy meteorology • Energy scenarios • Energy security • Energy storage • Energy-efficient buildings • Energy-efficient lighting • Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) • Financing energy efficiency • Fuel cells • Gender and energy • Geothermal energy for direct use (district heating, industry, agriculture, etc.) • Geothermal power generation • Green and greening computing • Green construction materials • Heat pumps • Hydrogen technologies • Labeling energy performance • Low energy architecture • Nano-energy • Renewable energy scenarios • Renewable energy strategies and policies • Renewable vehicle energy • Renewables energy for drinking water solutions • Renewables for poverty reduction • Renewables for small islands • Solar cars • Solar PV • Solar heating and cooling • Sustainable energy policies • Sustainable hydropower • Sustainable public transportation • Tidal energy • Water desalination using renewables • Wave power • Wind energy

Suresh K. Aggarwal, Chicago, USA - Ishfaq Ahmad, Arlington, USA - Sergio M. Alcocer, Mexico - Said Al-Hallaj, Chicago, USA - Khaled A. Al-Sallal, Al-Ain, UAE - Hussain Al-Towaie, Aden, Yemen - Joel R. Anstrom, University Park, USA - Kalyan Annamalai, College Station, USA - Jaco Appelman, Delft, The Netherlands - Santiago Arnaltes, Madrid, Spain - François Avellan, Lausanne, Switzerland - AbuBakr S. Bahaj, Southampton, UK - Ronald Bailey, Chattanooga, USA - Ramesh C Bansal, Brisbane, Australia - Ruggero Bertani, Rome, Italy - Prosun Bhattacharya, Stockholm, Sweden - Peter Birkle, Cuernavaca, Mexico - John Boland, Adelaide, Australia - Frances Brazier, Delft, The Netherlands - Gary W. Brudvig, New Haven, USA - Jens Burgtorf, New Delhi, India - Kirk W. Cameron, Blacksburg, USA - Thameur Chaibi, Tunis, Tunisia - Shih Hung Chan, Taipei, Taiwan - D. Chandrashekharam, Mumbai, India - S.K. Jason Chang, Taipei, Taiwan - Shanta Chatterji, Mumbai, India - Falin Chen, Taipei, Taiwan - Siaw Kiang Chou, Singapore - Daniel Cohn, Cambridge, USA - Erik Dahlquist, Västerås, Sweden - Holger Dau, Berlin, Germany - Sudipta De, Kolkata, India - Gilberto De Martino Jannuzzi, Campinas, S.P., Brazil - Kristin Deason, Berlin, Germany & Washington, USA - Tom Denniss, Macquarie Park, Australia - Roland Dimai, Dornbirn, Austria - Gregory Dolan, Alexandria, USA - Claus Doll, Karlsruhe, Germany - Peter Droege, Newcastle, Australia - Gautam Dutt, Buenos Aires, Argentina - James Edmonds, College Park, USA - Adeola Ijeoma Eleri, Abuja, Nigeria - Ali Emadi, Chicago, USA - Hans-Josef Fell, Berlin, Germany - Bruno Francois, Paris, France - Andrew Frank, Davis, USA - Petra Fromme, Phoenix, USA - Chris Gearhart, Dearborn, USA - John Golbeck, University Park, USA - José Goldemberg, Sao Paulo, Brazil - Barbara Goodman, Golden, USA - James Gover, Flint, USA - Amelia Hadfield, Brussel, Belgium - Jan Hoinkis, Karlsruhe, Germany - Einar Hope, Bergen, Norway - Yoichi Hori, Tokyo, Japan - Ernst Huenges, Potsdam, Germany - Iqbal Husain, Akron, USA - Gerald W. Huttrer, Frisco, USA - Tetsunari Iida, Tokyo, Japan - Rainer Janssen, München, Germany - Ma Jiming, Beijing, P.R. China - Guðni Jóhannesson, Reykjavík, Island - Thomas B. Johansson, Lund, Sweden - Perry T. Jones, Knoxville, USA - Soteris Kalogirou, Limasol, Cyprus - Ghazi A. Karim, Calgary, Canada - Arun Kashyap, New York, USA - Pertti Kauranen, Tampere, Finland - Lawrence L. Kazmerski, Golden, USA - Claudia Kemfert, Berlin, Germany - Thomas Kempka, Potsdam, Germany - Madhu Khanna, Urbana, USA - Ånund Killingtveit, Trondheim, Norway - Rob Kool, Utrecht, The Netherlands - Israel Koren, Amherst, USA - Arun Kumar, Uttarakhand, India - Naveen Kumar, Delhi, India - Chung K. Law, Princeton, NJ, USA - Harry Lehmann, Dessau, Germany - Dennis Leung, Hong Kong - Xianguo Li, Waterloo,Canada - Søren Linderoth, Roskilde, Denmark - Hongtan Liu, Miami,  USA - Wolfgang Lubitz, Mülheim an der Ruhr, Germany - Thomas Ludwig, Hamburg,Germany - Wolfgang F. Lutz, Ter Aar, The Netherlands / Asunción, Paraguay - Thomas Lynge Jensen, Suva, Fiji Islands - Sébastien Martinet, Grenoble, France - Omar R. Masera, Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico - Chang Mei, Cambridge, MA, USA - Pietro Menga, Milan, Italy - Gerd Michelsen, Lüneburg, Germany - James Miller, Argonne, USA - Daniel Mosse, Pittsburgh, USA - Urs Muntwyler, Burgdorf, Switzerland - Jayant K. Nayak, Mumbai, India - Emily Nelson, Cleveland, USA - Kim Nielsen, Virum, Denmark - Galal Osman, Cairo, Egypt - Alessandro Palmieri, Jakarta, Indonesia - Jérôme Perrin, Guyancourt, France - Gianfranco Pistoia, Rome, Italy - Josep Puig, Barcelona, Spain - Kaushik Rajashekara, Indianapolis, USA - Wattanapong Rakwichian, Chiang Mai, Thailand - Sanjay Ranka, Gainesville, USA - Klaus Rave, Kiel, Germany / Brussels, Belgium - Athena Ronquillo-Ballesteros, Washington, USA - Jack Rosebro, Los Angeles, USA - Marc A. Rosen, Oshawa, ON, Canada - Harald N. Røstvik, Stavanger, Norway - Ladislaus Rybach, Zurich, Switzerland - Ambuj D. Sagar, New Delhi, India - Roberto Schaeffer, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - Frank Scholwin, Leipzig, Germany - Lisa Schipper, Bangkok, Thailand - Dietrich Schmidt, Kassel, Germany - Jamal Shrair, Budapest, Hungary - Semida Silveira, Stockholm, Sweden - Subhash C. Singhal, Richland, USA - Erik J. Spek, Newmarket, Canada - Gregory Stephanopoulos, Cambridge, MA, USA - Robert Stüssi, Lisboa, Portugal - Mario-César Suarez-Arriaga, Morelia, Mexico - Lawrence E. Susskind, Cambridge, MA, USA - Eoin Sweeney, Dublin, Ireland - Antoni Szumanowski, Warsaw, Poland - Geraldo Lúcio Tiago Filho, Minas Gerais, Brazil - Alberto Troccoli, Canberra, Australia - Eftihia Tzen, Pikermi, Greece - Hamdi Ucarol, Gebze/Kocaeli, Turkey - Veerle Vandeweerd, New York, USA - Peter F. Varadi, Chevy Chase, USA - Maria Wall, Lund, Sweden - Martin Wietschel, Karlsruhe, Germany - Sheldon S. Williamson, Montreal, Canada - Wolfgang Winkler, Hamburg, Germany - Ramon Wyss, Stockholm, Sweden - Jinyue Yan, Royal Stockholm, Sweden - Laurence T. Yang, Antigonish, Canada - Guillermo Zaragoza, Almería, Spain - Tim S. Zhao, Hong Kong

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Energy
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / General
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / Water Supply