1st Edition

Geothermal, Wind and Solar Energy Applications in Agriculture and Aquaculture

ISBN 9781138029705
Published July 17, 2017 by CRC Press
362 Pages

USD $220.00

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Book Description

The agri-food chain consumes about one third of the world’s energy production with about 12% of it for crop production and nearly 80% for processing, distribution, retail, preparation and cooking. The agri-food chain also accounts for 80-90% of total global freshwater use where 70% alone is for irrigation. Additionally, on a global scale, freshwater production consumes nearly 15% of the entire energy production. It can therefore be argued that making agriculture and the agri-food supply chain independent from fossil fuel use has a huge potential to contribute to global food security and climate protection not only for the next decades but also for the coming century. Provision of secure, accessible and environmentally sustainable supplies of water, energy and food must thus be a priority.
One of the major objectives of the world’s scientists, farmers, decisions makers and industrialists is to overcome the present dependence on fossil fuels in the agro-food sector. This dependency increases the volatility of food prices and affects economic access to sustenance.
This book provides a critical review of recent developments in solar, wind and geothermal energy applications in agriculture and the agro-food sector such as processing, distribution, retail, preparation and cooking.

Table of Contents

Solar, wind and geothermal energy applications in agriculture: back to the future?
Jochen Bundschuh, Guangnan Chen, Barbara Tomaszewska, Noreddine Ghaffour, Shahbaz Mushtaq, Ihsan Hamawand, Kathryn Reardon-Smith, Tek Maraseni, Thomas Banhazi, Hacene Mahmoudi, Mattheus Goosen & Diogenes L. Antille
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Energy demands in agriculture
1.3 The water-energy-food-climate nexus
1.4 Greenhouse gas emissions and carbon footprint of agriculture
1.5 Merging renewables with agriculture: The sustainability approach
1.6 Conclusions

2. Agriculture sector modernization and renewable energy development: perspectives from developing countries
Robert K. Dixon & Ming Yang
2.1 Introduction
2.2 The role of the Global Environment Facility
2.3 Biomass energy
2.4 Combined renewable energy technologies
2.5 Geothermal energy
2.6 Small hydropower
2.7 Off-grid solar photovoltaic
2.8 On-grid solar photovoltaic
2.9 Solar thermal heating
2.10 Solar thermal power
2.11 Wind power
2.12 Summary and conclusions

3. Linking food and nutrition security, urban and peri-urban agriculture, and sustainable energy use: experiences from South America
Deborah Hines & Sarah Balistreri
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Multiple benefits from urban and peri-urban agriculture actions
3.3 Urban agriculture: examples from South America
3.4 Shaping the food and nutrition security agenda

4. Renewable energy use for aquaponics development on a global scale towards sustainable food production
Ragnheidur Thorarinsdottir, Daniel Coaten, Edoardo Pantanella, Charlie Shultz, Henk Stander & Kristin Vala Ragnarsdottir
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Aquaponics technology
4.3 Aquaponics as a sustainable food production method
4.4 Connection to UN Sustainable Development Goals 2015–2030
4.5 Conclusions and future work

5. Renewable energy use and potential in remote central Australia
Yiheyis Maru, Supriya Mathew, Digby Race & Bruno Spandonide
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Renewable energy supply: state and trends in remote Australia
5.3 Case studies from inland remote Australia
5.4 Discussion
5.5 Conclusion

6. Opportunities of adopting renewable energy for the nursery industry in Australia
Guangnan Chen, Erik Schmidt, Tek Maraseni, Jochen Bundschuh, Thomas Banhazi & Diogenes L. Antille
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Energy use in nursery
6.3 Opportunities of adopting alternative energy sources
6.4 Development of online calculator for alternative energy sources
6.5 Case studies
6.6 Conclusion

7. Fundamentals of solar energy
Maciej Klein, Kamil Łapinski, Katarzyna Siuzdak & Adam Cenian
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Photovoltaic effect – principle and operating mechanism of solar cells
7.3 System design: PV direct, grid-tied, stand-alone, grid-tied with battery backup, solar thermal – PVT
7.4 Storage: batteries, capacitors and supercapacitors, operation principle, new development (graphen etc.)

8. Renewable energy technologies for greenhouses in semi-arid climates
Francisco Javier Cabrera, Jorge Antonio Sánchez-Molina, Guillermo Zaragoza, Manuel Pérez-García & Francisco Rodríguez-Díaz
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Greenhouses in semi-arid climates
8.3 Overview of energy demands in greenhouses
8.4 Renewable energies applicable to greenhouses
8.5 Energy savings from crop growth control in greenhouses using optimal controllers
8.6 Conclusions

9. Solar photocatalytic disinfection of water for reuse in irrigation
Pilar Fernández-Ibáñez, María Inmaculada Polo-López, Sixto Malato, Alba Ruiz-Aguirre & Guillermo Zaragoza
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Compound parabolic collectors for water disinfection
9.3 Solar water disinfection (SODIS)
9.4 Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs)
9.5 Disinfection of wastewater effluents by solar treatments
9.6 Improvements in water disinfection by membrane distillation pretreatment
9.7 Concluding remarks and future perspectives

10. Solar PV for water pumping and irrigation
István Patay, István Seres & Jochen Bundschuh
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Energy demand of water pumping
10.3 Energy demand of irrigation methods
10.4 Electric water pumps for water supply and irrigation
10.5 Solar PV panels for pumping
10.6 Design of solar PV-based irrigation
10.7 Solar water pumping in Economic comparison with diesel- and grid electricity-powered pumping
10.8 Case studies
10.9 Conclusions

11. Solar drying
Om Prakash, Anil Kumar &Atul Sharma
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Basics of drying
11.3 Selection of solar dryers for the product
11.4 Types of solar dryers
11.5 Testing of solar dryer
11.6 Energy analysis
11.7 Impact of solar drying on product quality
11.8 Concluding remarks

12. Small-scale wind power energy systems for use in agriculture and similar applications
Wojciech Miaskowski, Krzysztof Nalepa, Paweł Pietkiewicz & Janusz Piechocki
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Assessment of wind parameters for the purpose of wind turbine location
12.3 Types of wind turbines
12.4 Horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs)
12.5 Vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs)
12.6 Strengths and weaknesses of HAWTs and VAWTs
12.7 Applications of wind turbines
12.8 Wind energy solutions for households
12.9 Conclusions

13. Windmills for water pumping, irrigation and drainage
István Patay & Norbert Schrempf
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Wind technologies for water pumping
13.3 Applications

14. Lakes as a heat source for heat pumps – a model study to determine the ecological impact of summer heat transfer
Renata Brzozowska, Maciej Neugebauer & Janusz Piechocki
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Heat pumps
14.3 Lake characteristics and anthropogenic pressure of heat pumps on lakes
14.4 Calculations
14.5 Conclusions

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Jochen Bundschuh (1960, Germany), finished his PhD on numerical modeling of heat transport in aquifers in Tubingen in 1990. He is working in geothermics, subsurface and surface hydrology and integrated water resources management, and connected disciplines. Since 2005, he is an affiliate professor of the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. In 2006, he was elected Vice-President of the International Society of Groundwater for Sustainable Development (ISGSD). From 2009-2011 he was visiting professor at the Department of Earth Sciences at the National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.
Since 2012, Dr. Bundschuh is a professor in hydrogeology at the University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Australia where he leads the Platform for Water in the Nexus of Sustainable Development working in the wide field of water resources and low/middle enthalpy geothermal resources, water and wastewater treatment and sustainable and renewable energy resources.

Dr. Bundschuh is author of the books "Low-Enthalpy Geothermal Resources for Power Generation" (2008) and "Introduction to the Numerical Modeling of Groundwater and Geothermal Systems: Fundamentals of Mass, Energy and Solute Transport in Poroelastic Rocks". He is editor of 18 books and editor of the book series "Multiphysics Modeling", "Arsenic in the Environment", "Sustainable Energy Developments" and "Sustainable Water Developments" (all CRC Press/Balkema, Taylor & Francis Group). Since 2015, he is an editor in chief of the Elsevier journal "Groundwater for Sustainable Development".

Dr. Guangnan Chen graduated from the University of Sydney, Australia, with a PhD degree in 1994. Before joining the University of Southern Queensland as an academic in early 2002, he worked for two years as a post-doctoral fellow and more than five years as a Senior Research Consultant in a private consulting company based in New Zealand. Dr. Chen has extensive experience in conducting both fundamental and applied research. His current research focuses on the sustainable agriculture and energy use. The researches aim to develop a common framework and tools to assess energy uses and greenhouse gas emissions in different agricultural sectors. These projects are funded by various government agencies and farmer organisations. Guangnan has also conducted significant research to compare the life cycle energy consumption of alternative farming systems, including the impact of machinery operation, conservation farming practice, irrigation, and applications of new technologies and alternative and renewable energy.
He has so far published more than 100 papers in international journals and conferences, including one edited book on sustainable energy solutions in agriculture and eight invited book chapters on various topics. He serves as a Section Editor for the International Journal of Agricultural & Biological Engineering (IJABE), and was the Guest Editor of a special issue of the journal of Applied Energy in 2014. He is currently the Secretary of Board of Technical Section IV (Energy in Agriculture), CIGR (Commission Internationale du Genie Rural), which is one of the world’s top professional bodies in agricultural and biosystems engineering.

Dornadula Chandrasekharam is Chair Professor in the Department of Earth Sciences at the Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (IITB). He obtained his MSc in Applied Geology (1972) and PhD (1980) from IITB, and has been working in the fields of geothermal energy resources, volcanology, and groundwater pollution for the past 30 years. 
Dornadula extensively conducted research in low-enthalpy geothermal resources in India and is currently the Chairman of M/s GeoSyndicate Power Private Ltd., the only geothermal company in India. He is an elected board member of the International Geothermal Association, and has widely represented the country in several international geothermal conferences. He has supervised 18 PhD students and published 95 papers in international and 35 papers in national journals of repute and published 5 books in the field of groundwater pollution and geothermal energy resources, a book on geothermal energy resources "Geothermal Energy Resources for Developing Countries" (2002) and  on "Low Enthalpy Geothermal Resources for Power Generation" (2008).

Janusz Piechocki graduated from the Technical University in Gdansk (Poland) in 1973, finished his PhD in 1981, and is Professor since 1998. He carries out research in the area of agricultural engineering, renewable energy sources, energy, electric engineering, assessment of the economic and energy effectiveness and sustainable energy development with reducing air pollutant emissions systems. Janusz was Vice-Rector of University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn (Poland) in the years 1999-2008 and 2012-2016. He was Dean of Faculty of  Technical Sciences at this University in years 2008-2012. He has published over 130 original research papers.

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