All that makes this planet special is largely attributable to liquid water. Water in one form or another is found all over our planet, even encountered at depths of thousands of meters within the rocky crust. With a history of around four billion years, water has been around since the early days of Earth. Its presence in large amounts is unique to our planet, as are the outcomes and products of the water-involved geological processes. If Earth is to us a friendly home, it is thanks to all that water has created.
Global Water Dynamics, written by renown geologist Emanuel Mazor is a unique book that deals with the global water systems via observations and multi-parametric physical, chemical, and isotopic measurements taken from a large number of springs and bore holes around the world.
The obtained data leads to conclusions and working hypotheses that provide us with the detailed understanding of studied systems. It also allows us to see the forest beyond the trees, the global system of inter-related systems. These include recent cycling groundwater, connate water entrapped in sedimentary basins, as well as thermal and volcanic water systems, and the occurrence of petroleum deposits. The presented data and discussions lead to first principles analyses, as well as a long list of practical lessons.
The content of this book addresses experts in the relevant fields, as well as university students in the earth sciences, hydrology, geology, petroleum exploration and exploitation, and environmental management and education.
Prologue: The observation-based, multi-sampling and multi-parametric research approach
The Geohydroderm and Its Major Groundwater-Containing Geosystems: Water propelled geological processes and shaped the landscapes of our friendly planet.
Exploring and understanding the geohydroderm by sequences of observations and conclusions. Basic research concepts, aims and queries, tools and strategies.
Shifting of Water and Salts between Oceans and Continents: Shallow cycling groundwater, its tagging by sea-spray and the underlying zone of static groundwater.
Interstitial waters in rock strata beneath the vast oceans. Salt, gypsum and clay strata within sedimentary basins disclose large-scale evaporitic paleo-landscapes.
Deep Groundwater Systems - Fossil Formation Waters: The geosystem of the fossil brine-tagged meteoric formation waters. Fossil formation waters range in age from tens-of-thousands to hundreds-of-millions years. Brine-tagged meteoric formation waters are common also in crystalline shields:
Petroleum Hydrology: Anatomy of sedimentary basins and petroleum fields highlighted by formation waters. Evolution of sedimentary basins and petroleum highlighted by the facies of the host rocks and coal. Petroleum and coal formation in closed compartments - the pressure-cooker model
Hydrology of Warm Groundwater and Superheated Volcanic Systems: Mineral and warm waters: Genesis; recreation facilities and bottling. Water in hydrothermal and volcanic systems.
Implementation, Research and Education: Data: acquisition, processing, monitoring, banking. Conclusions and research avenues. Education aspects of water, the unique fluid of planet Earth
Epilogue: Three energy sources and one transporter - the geo-quartet unique to planet Earth.
Answers and Discussions of the Exercise Questions