Graphical Rational Patterns
A New Approach to Graphical Presentation of Statistics
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In this book an attempt is made to evaluate the adequacy of common diagrammatical, cartographical and other graphical methods in order to represent, in a scientific manner, the various types of statistical data, of which graphical presentation may be sought.In regard to many important types of data - such as contingency tables, correlation tables, other double-entry tables and various geographical-statistical distributions - common graphical methods seem to be inadequate. A new device - the Graphical Rational Patterns (GRP) - which appears to be of considerable help in graphical presentation of such data, is therefore, introduced. Single GRP enable the representation of any integer /?= 10 ? + a by a pattern formed by u unitary marks of area a (which indicate the units) and by t marks of area 10a (which indicate the tens). As these patterns require very little space, and are enclosed within small square frames, they allow extremely simple representation of any double-entry table. Such single patterns can be used too, to indicate on a geographical map, that a varue n is to be attached to a given area or a given line (isoline, line of traffic-flow, etc.). By the means of GRP, it is possible to solve rationally many problems connected with the construction ofa geographical statistical map.The use of GRP also allows rearrangement at will of the various elements of the graph without changing the entire graph: for instance, individual GRP, or columns or lines of GRP can be removed, and their order changed. The book illustrates possibilities of making alternative comparisons of data; of examining alternative hypotheses, or relationships between data represented; of discovering "lags" and "leads"; and following-up cohorts in the course of time, etc. GRP graphs may be prepared quickly by anyone, by the use of preprinted patterns prepared on adhesive paper.Examples of applications have been taken from different fields: official, national and international statistics, demography, economics, sociology, geography, anthropology, meteorology, business administration, teaching of statistical methods, etc.