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Green Aviation
Reduction of Environmental Impact Through Aircraft Technology and Alternative Fuels




ISBN 9780415620987
Published September 7, 2017 by CRC Press
358 Pages

 
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Book Description

Aircraft emissions currently account for ~3.5% of all greenhouse gas emissions. The number of passenger miles has increased by 5% annually despite 9/11, two wars and gloomy economic conditions. Since aircraft have no viable alternative to the internal combustion engine, improvements in aircraft efficiency and alternative fuel development become essential.
This book comprehensively covers the relevant issues in green aviation. Environmental impacts, technology advances, public policy and economics are intricately linked to the pace of development that will be realized in the coming decades. Experts from NASA, industry and academia review current technology development in green aviation that will carry the industry through 2025 and beyond. This includes increased efficiency through better propulsion systems, reduced drag airframes, advanced materials and operational changes. Clean combustion and emission control of noise, exhaust gases and particulates are also addressed through combustor design and the use of alternative fuels. Economic imperatives from aircraft lifetime and maintenance logistics dictate the drive for "drop-in" fuels, blending jet-grade and biofuel. New certification standards for alternative fuels are outlined. Life Cycle Assessments are used to evaluate worldwide biofuel approaches, highlighting that there is no single rational approach for sustainable buildup. In fact, unless local conditions are considered, the use of biofuels can create a net increase in environmental impact as a result of biofuel manufacturing processes. Governmental experts evaluate current and future regulations and their impact on green aviation. Sustainable approaches to biofuel development are discussed for locations around the globe, including the US, EU, Brazil, China and India.

Table of Contents

Part I. Environmental impacts of aviation

1. Noise emissions from commercial aircraft
Edmane Envia
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Sources of aircraft noise
1.3 Aircraft component noise levels (example)
1.4 Summary

2. Aircraft emissions: gaseous and particulate
Changlie Wey and Chi-Ming Lee
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Gaseous emissions
2.3 Particle emissions
2.4 Alternative fuels
2.5 Summary

3. Improvement of aeropropulsion fuel efficiency through engine design
Kenneth L. Suder and James D. Heidmann
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Early history of NASA Glenn Research Center aeropropulsion fuel efficiency efforts, 1943 to 1958
3.3 Introduction of turbofan engines and Improved propulsive efficiency
3.4 Energy crisis of 1970s and NASA Aeronautics Response
3.5 NASA’s role in component test cases and computational fluid dynamics development
3.6 Current NASA efforts at reduced fuel consumption
3.7 Summary

Part II. Technologies to mitigate environmental impacts

4. Noise mitigation strategies
Dennis L. Huff
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Noise reduction methods
4.3 Future Noise-Reduction Technologies
4.4 Summary

5. Advanced materials for green aviation
Ajay Misra
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Lightweight materials
5.3 Smart materials
5.4 High-temperature materials
5.5 Materials for electric aircraft
5.6 Summary

6. C lean combustion and emission control
Changlie Wey and Chi-Ming Lee
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Products of combustion
6.3 Emissions control
6.4 Engine NOx control strategies
6.5 Tradeoffs involved in reducing NOx emissions
6.6 Summary

7. Airspace systems technologies
Banavar Sridhar
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Current airspace operations
7.3 Advanced airspace operations concepts
7.4 Next generation air transportation system technologies
7.5 Conclusions

8. Alternative fuels and green aviation
Emily S. Nelson
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Aviation fuel requirements
8.3 Fuel properties
8.4 Biofuel feedstocks for aviation fuels
8.5 Manufacturing stages
8.6 Life cycle assessment
8.7 Conclusions
Appendix. Basic terminology and concepts in hydrocarbon chemistry

9. Overview of alternative fuel drivers, technology options, and demand fulfillment
Kirsten Van Fossen, Kristin C. Lewis, Robert Malina, Hakan Olcay and James I. Hileman
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Alternative fuel drivers
9.3 Technology options
9.4 Meeting demand for alternative jet fuel
9.5 Conclusions 244

10. Biofuel feedstocks and supply chains: how ecological models can assist with design and scaleup
Kristin C. Lewis, Dan F.B. Flynn and Jeffrey J. Steiner
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Challenges of developing an agriculturally based advanced biofuel industry
10.3 Potential benefits of scaled-up biofuel feedstock production
10.4 Regionalized biomass production and linkage to conversion technology
10.5 Applying ecological models to biofuel production
10.6 Summary

11. Microalgae feedstocks for aviation fuels
Mark S. Wigmosta, Andre M. Coleman, Erik R. Venteris and Richard L. Skaggs
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Algae growth characteristics
11.3 Large-scale production potential and resource constraints
11.4 Two-billion gallon per year case study
11.5 Summary and conclusions

12. Certification of alternative fuels
Mark Rumizen and Tim Edwards
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Background
12.3 ASTM certification process
12.4 U.S. Federal Aviation Administration certification
12.5 Future pathways

13. Environmental performance of alternative jet fuels
Hakan Olcay, Robert Malina, Kristin Lewis, Jennifer Papazian, Kirsten van Fossen, Warren Gillette, Mark Staples, Steven R.H. Barrett, Russell W. Stratton and James I. Hileman
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Evaluating greenhouse gas emissions and impacts of alternative fuels on global climate change
13.3 Water
13.4 Biodiversity
13.5 Conclusions

14. Perspectives on the future of green aviation
Jay E. Dryer
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Key factors affecting the future of green aviation
14.3 Required technology for aircraft development and design
14.4 Required technology for greater alternative fuel utilization
14.5 Possible disruptive technologies
14.6 Forecast
14.7 Summary

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Editor(s)

Biography

Emily S. Nelson is a research engineer at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) specializing in interdisciplinary research at the intersection of fluid mechanics and heat transport, materials science, biology and/or human physiology. She received her B.S. in Mechanical Engineering from the Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL (1983); M.S. in Mechanical Engineering from the Illinois Institute of Technology (1986); and her Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering from the University of California at Berkeley (1998). Dr. Nelson has been employed as a research engineer by NASA GRC since 1989. She is conducting numerical simulations of industrial algae growth processes, which combine hydrodynamics with biokinetics to evaluate and develop system designs and operating protocols for biomass yield, consumption of waste CO2 generated by a power plant, and power requirements.

Dhanireddy Ramalinga "D.R" Reddy, Chief of the Aeropropulsion Division at NASA Glenn Research Center , Cleveland, Ohio, is responsible for providing enabling capabilities to the aerospace community by leading research and developing technology in the areas of turbomachinery, combustion, fuels/propellants, icing, inlets, nozzles, propulsion system simulation, engine systems, and computational methods. He received his Bachelor of Engineering in Mechanical Engineering (1971) from Sri Venkateswara University, A. P., India; Master of Engineering in Aeronautical Engineering (1974) from Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore; and Ph.D. in Aerospace Engineering (1983) from the University of Cincinnati. Dr. Reddy joined NASA GRC in 1991, serving as Chief of the Computational Fluid Dynamics Branch and Senior Consultant, and focusing research on developing a predictive capability to accurately simulate the complex flow features of advanced aerospace propulsion systems.