Green Polymeric Nanocomposites: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Green Polymeric Nanocomposites

1st Edition

Edited by Satya Eswari Jujjavarapu, Krishna Mohan Poluri

CRC Press

368 pages | 59 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9781138486577
pub: 2020-02-24
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Description

This book discusses environmentally friendly polymer nanocomposites with basic fundamentals, practicality and alternatives to traditional nanocomposites through detailed reviews of different materials procured from different resources, their synthesis, and applications using alternative green approaches.

This book covers green polymeric nanocomposites that show greater properties in terms of degradability, biocompatibility, synthesis process, cost effectiveness, mechanical strength, high surface area, nontoxicity, and environmental friendliness. These are beneficial to agricultural, biomedical, food processing, pharmaceutical, and other fields. The book includes applications and studies of various sources for green polymeric nanocomposites. The book aims at explaining basics of eco-friendly polymer nanocomposites from different natural resources and their chemistry along with practical applications which present a future direction in the biomedical, pharmaceutical and automotive industry.

This book is aimed at scientists, researchers, and teachers working in nanotechnology, biomaterials, polymer science, nanocomposites, and those studying products derived from ecofriendly nanomaterials.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction about green molecules and present scenario and previous research on green polymer nanocomposites

Neelamshobha Nirala1*

    1. Importance of green molecules …………………………………………………………..xx
    2. Importance of green nanoparticles…………………………………………….………..xx
    3. Importance of natural polymer…………………………………………………………..xx
    4. Importance of nanocomposites……………………………….…………………………..xx
    5. Types of natural polymers with properties……………………………………………..xx
    6. Why we combine natural polymers with green nanoparticles………………….……..xx
    7. Present scenario and previous research on green polymer nanocomposites…………..xx
    8. Comparative study of their synthesis process………………………..………………..xx

1.8.1 In-situ polymerization………………………….………………………..xx

1.8.2 Melt intercalation………………………………………………………..xx

1.8.3 Exfoliation adsorption……………………….…………………………..xx

1.9. Comparative study of their properties………………………………………………..xx

1.10. Comparative study of their quality of assessment…………………………………..xx

1.10.1 Infrared Spectroscopy………………………………………………..xx

1.10.2 X-ray diffraction……………………………………………………..xx

1.10.3 Wide Angle X-ray diffraction………………………………………..xx

1.10.4 Fourier-transform infrared…………………………………………..xx

1.10.5 Scanning Electron Microscope……………………..………………..xx

1.10.6 Transmission Electron Microscope………………….……….……..xx

1.10.7 Zeta Potential………………………………………………………..xx

1.10.8 Differential thermal analysis………………………………………..xx

1.10.9 Thermo Gravimetric Analysis…………………………….………..xx

1.11. Comparative study of their drawbacks………………………………….………..xx

1.12. Conclusion……………………………………………..………………….………..xx

Chapter 2: Synthesis of Green Polymeric Nanocomposites using Electrospinning

Sweta Naik, K. Chandrasekhar and J. Satya Eswari*

    1. Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………xx
    2. Principle of Electro-spinning………………………………………………………………xx
      1. Effect of Process Parameters on Electrospun Nanofibers……………….xx
      2. Solution Properties Parameters………………………………………….xx
      3. Viscosity …………………………………………………………………xx
      4. Concentration of the Solution……………………………………………xx
      5. Molecular Weight – MW………………………………………………..xx
      6. Surface Tension –ST……………………………………………………xx
      7. Solution Conductivity…………………………………………………..xx
      8. Voltage Applied………………………………………………………….xx
      9. Feed Rate………………………………………………………………..xx

    3. Fabrication Electro spun Nano-composites………………………………………………xx
      1. Poly ethylene oxide - PEO, poly-L-lactide-PLLA based formed oleic acid-coated magnetite nano-composites by electro-spinning……………….xx
      2. Gelatin based Silver Na- nano-composites by electro-spinning………..xx
      3. Chitosan Nanoparticles Self-Assembled from Electro spun Composite Nano-fibers……………………………………………………………xx
      4. Preparation of Electrospun Poly Vinyl Pyrrolidone/Cellulose Nanocrystal/Silver Nanoparticle Composite Fibers…………………..xx
      5. Starch-based composite scaffolds by electro-spinning……………….xx

    4. Characterization of Electro spun Nano-composites…………………………………..xx
      1. Morphological characteristics………………………………………..xx
      2. Structural, compositional and physicochemical properties…………..xx
      3. Mechanical strength………………………………………………….xx

    5. Modelling and simulation……………………………………………………………………………………xx
      1. Modelling of the ES process…………………………………………xx
      2. Jet initiation…………………………………………………………..xx
      3. Jet thinning-JT………………………………………………………..xx
      4. Jet solidification………………………………………………………..xx

    6. Applications of Electro spun Nanocomposites…………………………………………..xx
      1. Wound dressing…………………………………………………………xx
      2. Food Packing……………………………………………………………xx
      3. Water and air filters……………………………………………….……xx
      4. Super-capacitor and battery…………………………………………….xx
      5. Tissue template…………………………………………………………xx
      6. Drug delivery and pharmaceutical composition………………………..xx
      7. Cosmetics……………………………………………………………….xx
      8. Fuel cell…………………………………………………………………xx

2.7 Conclusion and Future Trends……………………………………………………………xx

2.8 References……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..xx

Chapter3: Synthesis and Characterization of Nanocomposites from Animal Origin polymer with green nanoparticles

Sweta Naik, Anita Tirkey, Dr. J. Satya Eswari*

    1. Introduction………………………………………………………………………………..xx
    2. Eco-friendly Bio fabrication of Polymeric Nanocomposite……………………………..xx
      1. Collagen /Gelatine based Nanocomposites…………………………………..xx
      2. Silk fibroin based Nanocomposites……………………………..……………xx
      3. Alginate based Nanocomposites………………………………………………xx
      4. Chitosan-based Nanocomposites……………………………………………..xx
      5. Albumin based Nanocomposites………………………………………………xx
      6. Hyaluronic acid-based composites……………………………………………xx

    3. Optimization of the Various Physicochemical Parameters………………………………xx
      1. Size and Surface Area of the nanocomposites………………………………..xx
      2. Effect of Particle Shape and Aspect Ratio……………………………………xx
      3. Effect of Aggregation and Concentration…………………………………….xx
      4. Effect of Surface Charge……………………………………………………..xx
      5. Effect of Surface Coating and Surface Roughness…………………………..xx
      6. Effect of Solvents/Medium…………………………………………………..xx

    4. Physical Characterizations………………………………………………………………..xx
    5. Nanocomposites, their Uses, and Applications…………………………………………..xx
      1. Food and Beverage Packaging………………………………………………..xx
      2. Tissue engineering…………………………………………………………….xx
      3. Drug delivery system………………………………………………………….xx
      4. Environmental protection and wastewater treatment…………………………xx
      5. Application in Cosmetics…………………………………….………….……xx
      6. Making lightweight sensors with nanocomposites……………………………xx
      7. Making flexible batteries by using nano-composites…………………………xx
      8. Making tumors more visible and easy to remove…………………………….xx

    6. Conclusion and Future Perspectives……………………………………………………….xx
    7. References……………………………………………………………………………………xx

Chapter 4: Sources of natural polymers from plants with green nanoparticles

J.Satya Eswari, K. Chandrasekhar, Sweta Naik, NK Prasanna Kumari, Aditya L Toppo and Dr. Veena Thakur*

    1. Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………xx
    2. Natural Polymers…………………………………………………………………………..xx
      1. Agar and its composites…………………………………………………………xx
      2. Natural rubber……………………………………………………………………xx
      3. Pectin and its composites………………………………………………………..xx
      4. Starch……………………………………………………………………………xx
      5. Cellulose and its composites……………………………………………………xx
      6. Carbohydrates and their composites…………………………………………….xx

    3. Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………xx
    4. References…………………………………………………………………………………xx

Chapter 5: Source of natural polymers from microorganisms with green nanoparticles

K. Chandrasekhar*, J. Satya Eswari, Prasun Kumar, Gopalakrishnan Kumar, Potla Durthi Chandrasai, Enamala Manoj Kumar, Murthy Chavali

5.1 Source of natural polymers from microbes with green nanoparticles …….………………. xx

5.2 Dextran and their composites ……………………………………………………………… xx

5.2.1 Dextran blend with sulfate coated chitosan ………………………………….…….. xx

5.2.2 Dextran mixture using curcumin ………………….……………………………….. xx

5.3 Xanthan and their composites ……………………………………………………………. xx

5.3.1 Xanthan gum mixture using poly(acrylamide) …………….………………………. xx

5.3.2 Xanthan mixture using polypyrrole ………………………………………………… xx

5.3.3 Xanthan gum mixture using polyaniline ………………….……………………….. xx

5.4 Bacterial Alginate and their composites …………….……………………………………. xx

5.5 Bacterial cellulose and their composites ……………………….…………………………. xx

5.5.1 Scaffold ……………………………………………………………………………. xx

5.5.2 Cornea …………………………..………………………………………………….. xx

5.5.3 Heart valves ……………………………..…………………………………………. xx

5.5.4 Blood vessels …………………………………….………………………………… xx

5.5.5 Bone and cartilage ………………………………………………………………….. xx

5.6 Microbial Hyaluronic Acid and their composites …………………………………………. xx

5.6.1 Hyaluronic acid grafted using polyacrylic acid ………………….………………… xx

5.6.2 Hyaluronic blend acid using polypyrrole ……………………………………….…… xx

5.6.3 Hyaluronic acid mixture using poly(ethylene glycol) ……………………………… xx

5.6.4 Hyaluronic acid mixture by poly(Ne-acryloyl l-lysine) ……………………………. xx

5.6.5 Hyaluronic acid mixture using poly(Lactide-Co-Glycolide) ………………….…… xx

5.7 Polyhydroxyalkanoates and their composites ……………………………………………. xx

5.8 Pullulan …………………………………………………………………………………… xx

5.9 Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………….… xx

Chapter 6: Enhancement of Polymeric Material Surface Properties Using Various Surface Modification Techniques

M.C. Ramkumar, K. Navaneetha Pandiyaraj*, P.V.A. Padmanabhan, P. Gopinath*, R.R. Deshmukh

  1. Introduction………………………………………………………………………………….xx
  2. Surface Modification Techniques………………………………………………………….xx

    1. Ozone treatment………………………………………………………………….xx
    2. Wet Chemical treatment…………………………………………………………xx
    3. UV induced polymerization………………………………………………………xx
    4. Gamma radiation…………………………………………………………………xx
    5. Laser treatment……………………………………………………………………xx

  1. Classification of Plasma……………………………………………………………………………………………xx

  1. Non-thermal plasma………………………………………………………………xx
  2. Plasma treatment……………………………………………………………..…..xx
  3. Plasma polymerization……………………………………………………………xx

    1. Acrylic acid coatings………………………………………………………………..…..xx
    2. Poly(ethylene)Glycol coatings……………………………………………………xx
    3. Allylamine Coatings………………………………………………………………xx
    4. Siloxane Coatings………………………………………………………………..xx
    5. Titanium Coatings………………………………………………………………..xx

  1. Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………..xx
  2. References……………………………………………………………………………………xx

Chapter 7: Green Polymeric Nanocomposites Applications

Mukesh Kumar Meher*, Krishna Mohan Poluri

  1. Introduction………………………………………………………………………………… xx
  2. Green polymers………………………………………………………………………..…… xx
    1. Proteins and polypeptides………………………………………………………. xx

      1. Zein……………………………………………………………………………… xx
      2. Casein……………………………………………………………………….……xx
      3. Serum albumin……………………………………………………………………xx
      4. Silk………………………………………………………………………….….…xx
      5. Collagen/gelatin………………………………………………………………….xx
      6. Keratin…………………………………………………………………………….xx
      7. Poly (amino acid)……………………………………………………………..….xx

    1. Polysaccharides………………………………………………………………….xx

      1. Starch…………………………………………………………………………….xx
      2. Cellulose…………………………………………………………………….…….xx
      3. Chitin/chitosan……………………………………………………………..…….xx
      4. Alginate………………………………………………………………….……….xx
      5. Pectin………………………………………………………………………….….xx
      6. Carrageenan………………………………………………………………….….xx
      7. Glycosaminoglycans……………………………………………………….…….xx
      8. Microbial polysaccharides……………………………………………………….xx

        1. Pulluan………………………………………………………………..….xx
        2. Xanthan gum…………………………………………………………….xx
        3. Gellan gum……………………………………………………………….xx
        4. Dextran…………………………………………………………….…….xx
        5. Curdlan…………………………………………………………….…….xx
        6. Levan…………………………………………………………………….xx

    1. Polycarbonates and polyesters…………………………………………….…….xx
      1. Polyhydroxyalkanoates…………………………………………………………..xx
      2. Poly (lactic acid) ……………………………………………………………….. xx

  1. Application of green polymeric nanocomposites………………………………………… xx

    1. Tissue engineering…………………………………………………………….….xx
    2. Drug delivery and biomedical applications…………………………….….…….xx
    3. Food packaging
    4. Adsorption of dye and heavy metal ions
    5. Air filtration
    6. Catalyst
    7. Nano-sensor
    8. Energy storage devices

  1. Concluding remarks
  2. Acknowledgements
  3. References

Chapter 8: Bio-nanocomposites: Green Materials for Orthopedic Applications

Archita Gupta, Padmini Padmanabhan, Sneha Singh*

  1. Introduction
  2. Bone structure and remodeling
  3. Requirements of bone scaffolds
  4. Bionanocomposite- a facsimiled bone
  5. Components, properties and classification of BnC

  1. Morphological structure
  2. Mechanical properties
  3. Thermal stability
  4. Biodegradability

  1. Methods of BnC synthesis

  1. Solvent-Casting based Particulate-Leaching
  2. Gas-Foaming based Particulate-Leaching
  3. Co-precipitation Method
  4. Phase Separation and Emulsion Freeze Drying
  5. Template synthesis
  6. Fiber Bonding
  7. In situ intercalative polymerization and melt intercalation
  8. Melt Molding
  9. Cryogelation
  10. Sol-gel method
  11. Hydrothermal Method
  12. Rapid Prototyping Techniques

  1. BnC in orthopedics- Present and future
  2. Final Remarks
  3. References

 

Chapter 9: Life Cycle Assessment and Future Perspectives of Green Polymeric Nanocomposites

Sharanya Sarkar, Khushboo Gulati, Krishna Mohan Poluri*

  1. Introduction
  2. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA
  3. Importance of LCA
  4. Exposure Scenarios of Nanomaterials during Different Life Cycle Stages of Nanocomposites

    1. Product Design Phase
    2. Product Manufacture Phase
    3. Product Use Phase
    4. Product Disposal Phase

  1. Methodology of LCA

    1. Goal and Scope Definition
    2. Life Cycle Inventory (LCI
    3. Life Cycle Impact Assessment

      1. Environmental Fate Modelling
      2. Effect Modelling
      3. Exposure Modelling

    1. Interpretation of Results

  1. LCA case studies
  2. Challenges in LCA
  3. Concluding remarks
  4. Future Perspective of LCA
  5. Acknowledgements
  6. References

Chapter 10: Limitations in Commercialization of Green Polymeric Nanocomposites and Avenues for Rectification

Deepak Kumar Tripathi,Sharanya Sarkar, Mukesh Kumar Meher, Krishna Mohan Poluri*

  1. Introduction
  2. GPNC and its market
  3. Stages of Development

      1. Raw materials: Advantages and Limitations

        1. Starch
        2. Cellulose
        3. Chitosan
        4. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA)
        5. Poly lactic acid (PLA
        6. Miscellaneous

      1. Production of GPNC
      2. Shelf-life of GPNC
      3. Applications
      4. Environmental effects and nano-toxicology

  1. Limitations in commercialization of GPNC
  2. Concluding remarks
  3. Acknowledgements
  4. References

About the Editors

Dr. J. Satya Eswari is currently Assistant Professor at Biotechnology Department of National Institute of Technology (NIT), Raipur, India. She received her M.Tech in Biotechnology from Indian Institute Technology (IIT) Kharagpur and Ph.D from IIT, Hyderabad. During her research career, she worked as a scientist (Department of Science and Technology (DST)) at Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT) Hyderabad. She has rigorously pursued her research in the areas of bioinformatics and bioprocess and product development. She gained pioneering expertise in the application of mathematical and engineering tools to biotechnological processes. Her fields of specialization include bioinformatics, biotechnology, process modeling, evolutionary optimization, and artificial intelligence. She has published more than 19 sci/scopus research papers and 25 papers in international conference proceedings. Her research contributions have received wide global citations. She completed 1 DST Woman Scientist project and is currently handling 1 DST-Early career research project, and one CCOST. She has more than 4 years of teaching experience and 3 years of research experience.

Ms. Sweta Naik is a PhD Research Scholar at Department of Biotechnology, National Institute of Technology Raipur, India.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TEC021000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Material Science