1st Edition

Grid-Forming Power Inverters Control and Applications

    306 Pages 205 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Grid-Forming Power Inverters: Control and Applications is the first book dedicated to addressing the operation principles, grid codes, modelling and control of grid-forming power inverters. The book initially discusses the need for this technology due to the substantial annual integration of inverter-based renewable energy resources. The key differences between the traditional grid-following and the emerging grid-forming inverters technologies are explained. Then, the book explores in detail various topics related to grid-forming power inverters, including requirements and grid standards, modelling, control, damping power system oscillations, dynamic stability under large fault events, virtual oscillator-controlled grid-forming inverters, grid-forming inverters interfacing battery energy storage, and islanded operation of grid-forming inverters.


    • Explains the key differences between grid-following and grid-forming inverters
    • Explores the requirements and grid standards for grid-forming inverters
    • Provides detailed modelling of virtual synchronous generators
    • Explains various control strategies for grid-forming inverters
    • Investigates damping of power system oscillations using grid-forming converters
    • Elaborates on the dynamic stability of grid-forming inverters under large fault events
    • Focuses on practical applications

    Chapter 1 Introduction to Grid-Forming Inverters

    Akhlaque Ahmad Khan and Ahmad Faiz Minai

    Chapter 2 Requirements and Grid Standards for Grid-Forming Inverters

    Chitaranjan Phurailatpam and Damian Flynn

    Chapter 3 Power System Requirements for Grid-Forming Converters

    M. R. Younis and H. M. Youssef

    Chapter 4 Toward Performance-Based Requirements and Generic Models for Grid-Forming Inverters

    Ramasubramanian, W. Wang, E. Farantatos, and M. Huque

    Chapter 5 An Overview of Modeling and Control of Grid-Forming Inverters

    Sam Roozbehani, Reza Deihimi Kordkandi, and Mehrdad Tarafdar Hagh

    Chapter 6 Small-Signal Modeling and Validation including State-Space and Admittance Models of the Virtual Synchronous Machine

    Jingzhe Xu, Weihua Zhou, and Behrooz Bahrani

    Chapter 7 Grid-Forming Control of Doubly Fed Induction Generators

    S. Arnaltes, J.L. Rodríguez-Amenedo, and J. Castro

    Chapter 8 Damping Power System Oscillations Using Grid-Forming Converters

    J.L. Rodríguez-Amenedo and S. Arnaltes

    Chapter 9 Grid-Forming Dynamic Stability under Large Fault Events – Application to 100% Inverter-Based Irish Power System

    Xianxian Zhao and Damian Flynn

    Chapter 10 Virtual Oscillator-Controlled Grid-Forming Inverters Incorporating Online Parametric Grid Impedance Identification

    Nabil Mohammed, Behrooz Bahrani, and Mihai Ciobotaru

    Chapter 11 Grid-Forming Inverters Interfacing Battery Energy Storage Systems

    Sukumar Kamalasadan, Michael Smith, and Fahim Al Hasnain

    Chapter 12 Operation of Grid-Forming Inverters in Islanded Mode

    Habib Ur Rahman Habib



    Nabil Mohammed, Hassan Haes Alhelou, Behrooz Bahrani