1st Edition

Handbook of Biofunctional Surfaces

Edited By Wolfgang Knoll Copyright 2012
    1184 Pages 32 Color & 359 B/W Illustrations
    by Jenny Stanford Publishing

    The design and synthesis of molecularly or supramolecularly defined interfacial architectures have seen in recent years a remarkable growth of interest and scientific research activities for various reasons. On the one hand, it is generally believed that the construction of an interactive interface between the living world of cells, tissue, or whole organisms and the (inorganic or organic) materials world of technical devices such as implants or medical parts requires proper construction and structural (and functional) control of this organism–machine interface. It is still the very beginning of generating a better understanding of what is needed to make an organism tolerate implants, to guarantee bidirectional communication between microelectronic devices and living tissue, or to simply construct interactive biocompatibility of surfaces in general.

    This exhaustive book lucidly describes the design, synthesis, assembly and characterization, and bio-(medical) applications of interfacial layers on solid substrates with molecularly or supramolecularly controlled architectures. Experts in the field share their contributions that have been developed in recent years.


    Self-Assembled Monolayers
    Self-Assembled Monolayers: A Versatile Tool for Biofunctionalization of Surfaces
    Atul N. Parikh and David L. Allara
    Self-Assembly Mechanisms
    Spatial Patternability
    Biologically Relevant Surface Functionalization
    Gemini SAMs Kaoru Tamada and Shinobu Yokokawa
    Basic Characteristics of Gemini-Structured SAMs
    Selective Adsorption of Tartatic Acid
    Optical Resolution on Chiral SAMs
    Physical Chemistry of Nonfouling Oligo (Ethylene Oxide)-Terminated Self-Assembled Monolayers Michael Grunze
    A Survey of Physicochemical Surface Properties Relevant for Biofouling
    Surface Energy
    Steric Repulsion by Polymer Brushes
    Preparation of OEG-Terminated Alkanethiolate SAMs and Their Characterization
    Stability of OEG and PEG Coatings
    OEG SAMs on Other Substrates
    Mechanisms of "Inertness" of OEG SAMs
    Hydration of Oligo(Ethylene Oxide)
    The Thermodynamic Perspective
    Electrochemically Designed Self-Assembled Monolayers for the Selective Immobilization and Release of Ligands, Proteins, and Cells Omar Azzaroni and Roberto C. Salvarezza
    Electrochemistry of Thiol Self-Assembled Monolayers on Metal Surfaces
    Controlling Biological Activity Using Electroactive Self-Assembled Monolayers
    Controlling the Release of Bioactive Elements by Electrochemical Desorption of Self-Assembled Monolayers
    OM-CVD on Patterned SAMs Silvia Mittler
    Introduction 140
    OM-CVD of Cu onto Patterned MPTS and SAMs on OTS as a Blocking Resist
    OM-CVD of Pd and Pt onto Patterned OTS SAMs as a Blocking Resist
    OM-CVD-Grown Au on Stamped SAMs on Au/Mica
    OM-CVD-Grown Gold NPs in Rows on SNOM Nanolithographically Manipulated HDT SAMs on Au
    OM-CVD-Grown Au NPs on Cu– Ion Patterned OTS SAMs on Oxidized Silicon Wafers
    OM-CVD-Grown Au NPs on Ga+ Ion FIB-Patterned OTS SAMs on Oxidized Silicon Wafers
    OM-CVD-Grown Au NPs on Ga+ Ion FIB-Patterned OTS SAMs on Oxidized Silicon Wafers with Additional Density Control due to the Application of a Binary Mixed Refilled SAM
    OM-CVD-Grown Au NPs on Ga+ Ion FIB-Patterned OTS SAMs on SiO2/ITO/Glass and Directly on Glass

    Brushes, Dendrimers, Networks
    Modification of Glass Surfaces by Phosphorus Dendrimer Layers for Biosensors
    Anne-Marie Caminade and Jean-Pierre Majoral
    Modification of Inorganic Surfaces by Phosphorus Dendrimers
    Chemical Sensors Based on Phosphorus Dendrimers
    Biosensors Based on Phosphorus Dendrimers
    Biofunctional Dendrons Grafted on a Surface Young-Eun Choi and Joon Won Park
    Self-Assembly of Dendrons through Covalent Bonds
    Self-Assembly of a Dendron through a Noncovalent Bond
    Surface-Attached Polymeric Hydrogel Films Ulrich Jonas, Coenraad R. van den Brom, Annette Brunsen, and Robert F. Roskamp
    Hydrogel Systems
    Structure and Properties of Hydrogel Layers
    Conclusion and Outlook
    Evanescent Wave Biosensors with a Hydrogel Binding Matrix 361 Jakub Dostalek, Yi Wang, Chun Jen Huang, and Wolfgang Knoll
    Key Characteristics of Hydrogel Binding Matrices
    Evanescent Wave Optics for Probing Hydrogel Films
    Mass Transport and Affinity Binding of Analyte in a Gel
    Biosensor Implementations
    Conclusion and Outlook
    Surface Modification of High-Strength Interpenetrating Network Hydrogels for Biomedical Device Applications David Myung, Lampros Kourtis, Jaan Noolandi, Jennifer Cochran, Christopher N. Ta, and Curtis W. Frank
    Literature Review
    Bulk and Surface Properties of PEG/PAA IPN Hydrogels
    Cellular Interaction with Surface-Modified PEG/PAA Hydrogels
    Summary and Outlook
    Ultrasensitive Biosensing with Polymer Brushes Fang Yu
    Polymer Brush Matrix Based on Dextran Chemistry
    Protein Immobilization on a Dextran Matrix
    Comparison between 2D and 3D Matrices
    LOD Evaluation
    SPFS PSA Assay

    Peptides, Proteins
    Noncovalent Immobilization of Proteins to Surfaces
    Pascal Jonkheijm and Jurriaan Huskens
    Site-Selective Noncovalent Immobilization Methods
    Conclusion and Perspectives
    Recent Progress on Site-Selective Covalent Methods for Generating Protein Biochips Qi An and Pascal Jonkheijm
    Site-Selective Surface Immobilization of Proteins
    Conclusion and Perspectives
    S-Layer Proteins Uwe B. Sleytr, Dietmar Pum, Eva Maria Egelseer, Nicola Ilk, and Bernhard Schuster
    Location and Ultrastructure of S-Layers
    Isolation, Chemical Characterization, and Molecular Biology
    Assembly of S-Layers in vivo
    Self-Assembly of Isolated S-Layer Subunits (in vitro)
    S-Layer Ultrafiltration Membranes
    S-Layers as Matrix for the Immobilization of Functional Macromolecules and Nanoparticles
    S-Layer Fusion Proteins and S-Layer Neoglycoproteins
    S-Layers as a Matrix for Biomineralization
    S-Layer-Stabilized Planar Lipid Membranes and Liposomes
    Peptide Nanotube Coatings for Bioapplications Lise T. de Jonge and Molly M. Stevens
    Self-Assembled Peptide-Based Nanotubes
    Peptide Nanotube Coatings
    Peptide Nanotubes for Bioapplications
    Summary and Outlook

    Heparan Sulfate Surfaces to Probe the Functions of the Master Regulator of the Extracellular Space
    Nina S. Azmi and David G. Fernig
    Biological Significance of Glycosaminoglycans
    Heparin and Heparan Sulfate
    Oligosaccharide Preparation
    Strategies for Functionalizing Surfaces with HS, Heparin, and Derived Oligosaccharides
    Applications of HS- and Heparin-Functionalized Surfaces
    Opportunities for Heparin- and HS-Functionalized Surfaces
    Heparanated Surfaces Victor Nurcombe, William R. Birch, and Simon M. Cool
    Proteoglycans: Core Proteins and GAG Sugars (Mulloy)
    Heparan Sulfate Biochemistry
    The GAG Chains on Proteoglycans are "Catalysts of Molecular Encounter"
    HS Functions
    Glycosaminoglycans and Surfaces
    The Manipulation of Signaling by Immobilized HS
    Experiments on Specific Heparanated Surfaces

    Lipid Bilayer Membranes
    Biomimetic Systems: The Tethered Bilayer Lipid Membrane
    Stefan M. Schiller
    Models of the Biological Membrane
    Components of the tBLM and Their Properties
    Examples for tBLMs, Detection Schemes, and Their Applications
    Current and Future Directions
    Cell-Free Synthesis of Complex Membrane Proteins Ahu Arslan Yildiz, Sandra Ritz, and Eva-Kathrin Sinner
    Methods and Experimental Approaches
    Incorporation of Isolated Protein
    Detection of Cyt-bo3 Expression and Insertion by SPFS
    Immune-Blotting Assay
    Enzymatic Functionality Assay
    Conclusion and Outlook
    Integrin-Functionalized Artificial Membranes as Test Platforms for Monitoring Small Integrin Ligand Binding by Surface Plasmon–Enhanced Fluorescence Spectroscopy Ute Reuning, Daniela Lössner, Birgit Wiltschi, Wolfgang Knoll, and Eva-Kathrin Sinner
    Surface Plasmon Resonance and Surface Plasmon–Enhanced Fluorescence Spectroscopy as Tools for Recording Binding Events to Membrane-Embedded Receptor Proteins
    Development of an Integrin/Ligand-Binding Test on Artificial Membranes Established on SPR/SPFS Biosensors
    SPR/SPFS Monitoring of Binding Events of Different Ligands to Membrane-Embedded Integrins
    SPR/SPFS, a Promising Scientific Method for the Characterization of Transmembrane Receptor Proteins
    Supported Lipid Bilayer Formation Using Self-Spreading Phenomena Kazuaki Furukawa
    Preparation of Supported Lipid Bilayers by Self- Spreading
    Self-Spreading Control Using Surface Patterns
    Microchannel Device Using a Self-Spreading Lipid Bilayer as a Molecule Carrier
    Interaction with a Nanoscale Structure
    Summary and Perspective
    Electrically Addressable, Biologically Relevant Surface-Supported Bilayers Janice Lin, Kalina Hristova, and Peter C. Searson
    Introduction: Surface-Supported Bilayers as Models of Cell Membranes
    Bilayers Produced via Langmuir–Blodgett Deposition
    Theory of Impedance Spectroscopy of Supported Bilayers
    Polymer Cushion
    Lipid Composition
    Micropatterned Model Biological Membranes on a Solid Surface Kenichi Morigaki
    Micropatterned Model Membrane Composed of Polymerized and Fluid Lipid Bilayers
    Facilitated Integration of Fluid Lipid Bilayers in the Presence of Polymeric Bilayers
    Composite Membranes of Polymerized and Fluid Lipid Bilayers
    Spatially Controlled Phase Separation
    Conclusion and Outlook

    Cells on Biofunctional Surfaces
    Matrix Mysteries and Stem Cells
    William Birch and Steve Oh
    Defined Media for hESC Culture
    Defined Planar Surfaces for hESC Culture
    Summary of 2D Surfaces for hESC Culture
    Future Perspectives
    Mechanical Cues for Cell Culture K. A. Melzak, S. Moreno-Flores, M. dM Vivanco, and Jose-Luis Toca-Herrera
    Properties and Components of the ECM
    Modification of Hard Surfaces with an ECM or ECM-Like Layer
    Modification of Hard Surfaces with Collagen
    Collagen Gels in Three Dimensions
    Preparation and Modification of Substrates with Defined Mechanical Properties
    In vitro Neuronal Cell Guidance by Protein Micro- and Nanocontact Printing Andreas Offenhäusser, Dirk Mayer, Simone Meffert, and Daniel Schwaab
    Surface-Bound Proteins Patterned by Soft Lithography
    Neuronal Adhesion and Outgrowth
    Hemocompatible Surfaces for Blood-Contacting Applications Yuquan Zou, Kai Yu, Benjamin F. L. Lai, Donald E. Brooks, and Jayachandran N. Kizhakkedathu
    Hemocompatible Surfaces Based on Polymer Brushes
    Importance of the Use of New Screening Techniques for Assessing Hemocompatibility

    Nanopatterning of Biomolecules by Dip-Pen Nanolithography
    Xiaozhu Zhou, Sreenivasan Koliyat Parayil, Hai Li, and Hua Zhang
    Direct- and Indirect-Write DPN
    Applications in Biological Systems
    Conclusions and Outlook
    Application of Biofunctional Surfaces in Medical Diagnostics Christa Nöhammer
    Basics and Potential of Microarray Technology
    Microarrays for Cancer Diagnostics
    Microarrays for Infectious Disease Diagnostics and Lab-on-a-Chip Systems
    Nanopatterning for Bioapplications Patrick Domnanich and Claudia Preininger
    Fabrication Techniques
    Glucose Biosensors: Transduction Methods, Redox Materials, and Biointerfaces Roderick B. Pernites and Rigoberto C. Advincula
    Materials and Methods
    New Materials and Interfaces


    Wolfgang Knoll received a PhD in biophysics at the University of Konstanz in 1976. In 1977, he joined the group of Prof. E. Sackmann at the University of Ulm, Germany, working on model membrane systems and their phase behavior by neutron scattering and spectroscopic and thermodynamic measurements. After a postdoctoral stay at the IBM Research Laboratory in San Jose, California (1980–1981), and a stay as a visiting scientist at the Institute Laue-Langevin in Grenoble, he joined the Physics Department of the Technical University of Munich. From 1991 to 1999, he was head of Laboratory for Exotic Nanomaterials hosted by the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in Wako, Japan. In 1992, he was appointed consulting professor at the Department of Chemical Engineering at Stanford University, California. In 1998, Dr. Knoll was appointed professor of chemistry (by courtesy) at the University of Florida in Gainesville and in 1999 adjunct professor at Hanyang University in Seoul, South Korea. From 1999 to 2003 he was a Temasek Professor at the National University of Singapore, and since 2008 is honorary professor at the University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences in Vienna, Austria, and visiting professor at the Nanyang Technological University of Singapore. Since 2008 he is scientific managing director of the AIT Austrian Institute of Technology in Vienna, Austria. His current research interests include aspects of the structure/order–property/function relationships of polymeric/organic systems, in particular in thin films and at functionalized surfaces.