Handbook of Commercial Catalysts: Heterogeneous Catalysts, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Handbook of Commercial Catalysts

Heterogeneous Catalysts, 1st Edition

By Howard F. Rase

CRC Press

520 pages

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Hardback: 9780849394171
pub: 2000-03-24
$300.00
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Description

Despite the advances in understanding the phenomena that occur on a catalyst surface, much of the successful catalyst development and use continues to be half science and half art. The art resides in the practical knowledge of experts in the development and use of commercial catalysts-it comes with experience. Now the background needed to nurture the experience and inspire the art is collected along with the science into a single volume.

Whether called upon to select or improve a catalyst, design a process, diagnose operating problems, or improve existing processes, the Handbook of Commercial Catalysts provides the information needed to form a basis for the task. It offers a starting point by providing a broad overview of 150 major commercial processes and the heterogeneous catalyst used for each. The author has arranged them according to specific reaction or reaction type, and supplies reference citations for deeper research. He offers valuable insghts-based on chemistry, thermodynamics, and surface science-that provide a framework for rational reasoning about catalyst performance.

With data collected from the existing literature, from the in-house specialists of commercial vendors, and from his own extensive experience, the author discusses for each reaction:

  • Product uses

  • Chemistry

  • Mechanism

  • Catalyst type

  • Catalyst suppliers and licensors

  • Catalyst deactivation

  • Catalyst regeneration

  • Process units

  • Process kinetics

    Armed with this information, the reader can begin rational analysis of an existing or planned reaction system and logically discuss catalyst characteristics and operations with technical representative of catalyst manufacturers and with colleagues.

  • Table of Contents

    ACETOXYLATION

    Ethylene + Acetic Acid à Vinyl Acetate

    Butadiene + Acetic Acid à 1,4 Diacetoxy-2-Butene à 1,4 Butanediol à Tetrahydrofuran

    Propylene + Acetic Acid à Allyl Acetate à Allyl Alcohol

    ALKYLATION

    Introduction

    Alkylation of Benzene and Toluene

    Alkylation of Phenols

    Higher Alkylphenols

    Alkylation of Polynuclear Aromatics

    Alkylation of Aromatic Amines

    Transalkylation and Disproportionation

    Lower Aliphatic Amines by Alkylation of Ammonia (Amination)

    AMMONOLYSIS

    Phenol + Ammonia à Aniline

    Meta-Cresol + Ammonia à Meta-Toludine

    Diethylene Glycol + Ammonia à Morpholine

    AMMOXIDATION

    Propylene à Acrylonitrile

    Methane à HCN

    Isobutylene à Methacrylonitrile

    Aromatic Methyl Compounds à Nitriles

    CARBONYLATION

    Carboxylation of Olefins to Carboxylic Acids

    Carbon Monoxide + Chlorine à Phosgene

    DEHYDRATION OF ALCOHOLS

    1-Phenylethanol à Styrene

    DEHYDROCHLORINATION

    C10 - C13 Chlorideà Linear Olefins

    DEHYDROGENATION

    Dehydrogenation of Ethylbenzene

    Styrene Derivatives from Other Alkyl Aromatics

    Dehydrogenation of Lower Alkanes

    Alcohols to Aldehydes or Ketones

    Three Other Dehydrogenations

    EXPOXIDATION

    Ethylbenzene à Propylene Oxide + Styrene

    HYDRATION

    Ethylene à Ethanol

    Propylene à Isopropyl Alcohol

    N-ButenesàSec-Butanol

    Acrylonitrile à Alkylamide

    HYDROCHLORINATION

    Alkenes

    Alcohols

    HYDROGENATION

    General Background

    Hydrogenation of Aromatic Rings

    Hydrogenation of Heterocyclic Compounds

    Hydrogenation of Aliphatic Unsaturates

    Hydrogenation of Nitriles to Amines

    Hydrogenation of Nitroaromatics

    Hydrogenation of Haloaromatics

    Hydrogenation of Carbonyl Compounds

    Hydrogenation of Resins, Rosins, and Waxes

    Selective Hydrogenation of Fats and Oils

    Miscellaneous Hydrogenations

    HYDROGENOLYSIS

    Natural Fatty Acids and Fatty Esters à Fatty Alcohols

    Dimethylterephthalate à 1,4 Dimethylolcyclohexane

    Toluene à Benzene (Hydroalkylation)

    Methyl and Dimethyl Napthalene

    ISOMERIZATION

    Meta-Xylene à Para and Ortho-Xylene

    OXIDATION (INORGANIC)

    Sulfur Dioxide à Sulfur Trioxide à Sulfuric Acid

    Ammonia à Nitric Oxide à Nitrogen Dioxide à Nitric Acid

    Hydfrogen Sulfide à Sulfur

    OXIDATION (ORGANICS)

    General

    Ethylene à Ethylene Oxide

    Propene à Acrolein

    Propene à Acrolein à Acrylic Acid

    Butane or Benzene à Maleic Anhydride

    Ortho-Xylene or Naphthalene à Phthalic Anhydride

    Anthracene à Anthraquinone

    Methanol à Formaldehyde

    Isobutylene or Tert-Butyl Alcohol à Methacrolein à Methacrylic Acid

    OXYCHLORINATION

    Ethylene à 1,2 Dichloroethane à Vinyl Chloride

    PETROLEUM REFINING

    Catalytic Reforming

    Hydroprocessing (General)

    Hydrotreating

    Hydrocracking

    Isomerization

    Oligomerization (Polymer Gasoline Production)

    Fluid Catalytic Cracking

    Oxygenates

    SYNTHESIS GAS AND ITS PRODUCTS

    Historical Background

    Modern Synthesis Gas Production

    High and Low Temperature Shift Conversion (CO + H2O à H2 + CO2)

    Naphtha Steam Reforming

    Methanol Synthesis (Carbon Monoxide + Hydrogen à Methanol)

    Pure Carbon Monoxide from Synthesis Gas and Its Uses

    Pure Hydrogen from Synthesis Gases and Its Uses

    Ammonia Synthesis (Nitrogen + Hydrogen à Ammonia)

    Appendix

    Subject Categories

    BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
    SCI013060
    SCIENCE / Chemistry / Industrial & Technical