1st Edition

Handbook of Environmental Fluid Dynamics, Volume Two Systems, Pollution, Modeling, and Measurements

Edited By Harindra Joseph Fernando Copyright 2013
    587 Pages 30 Color & 334 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    587 Pages 30 Color & 334 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    With major implications for applied physics, engineering, and the natural and social sciences, the rapidly growing area of environmental fluid dynamics focuses on the interactions of human activities, environment, and fluid motion. A landmark for the field, the two-volume Handbook of Environmental Fluid Dynamics presents the basic principles, fundamental flow processes, modeling techniques, and measurement methods used in the study of environmental motions. It also offers critical discussions of environmental sustainability related to engineering.

    The handbook features 81 chapters written by 135 renowned researchers from around the world. Covering environmental, policy, biological, and chemical aspects, it tackles important cross-disciplinary topics such as sustainability, ecology, pollution, micrometeorology, and limnology.

    Volume Two: Systems, Pollution, Modeling, and Measurements explores the interactions between engineered structures and anthropogenic activities that affect natural flows, with particular emphasis on environmental pollution. The book covers the numerical methodologies that underpin research, predictive modeling, and cyber-infrastructure developments. It also addresses practical aspects of laboratory experiments and field observations that validate quantitative predictions and help identify new phenomena and processes.

    As communities face existential challenges posed by climate change, rapid urbanization, and scarcity of water and energy, the study of environmental fluid dynamics becomes increasingly relevant. This volume is a valuable resource for students, researchers, and policymakers working to better understand environmental motions and how they affect and are influenced by anthropogenic activities.

    See also Handbook of Environmental Fluid Dynamics, Two-Volume Set and Volume One: Overview and Fundamentals.

    Part I Engineered Systems and Anthropogenic Influence

    Water Distribution Systems
    F.A. Bombardelli

    Groundwater–Surface Water Discharges
    Christopher Butler and Thomas C. Harmon

    Fluid Mechanics of Agricultural Systems
    Josef Tanny

    Desalination and the Environment
    M.J. Davidson and C.J. Oliver

    Bubble Plumes
    Scott A. Socolofsky and Chris R. Rehmann

    Scour around Hydraulic Structures
    F. Sotiropoulos, P. Diplas, and A. Khosronejad

    Flow through Urban Canopies
    Rex E. Britter and Silvana Di Sabatino

    Flow through Buildings
    Nigel Berkeley Kaye and Morris R. Flynn

    Bluff Body Aerodynamics and Aeroelasticity
    Ahsan Kareem

    Wake–Structure Interactions
    C.H.K. Williamson

    Urban Heat Islands
    M. Roth

    Part II Environmental Pollution
    Atmospheric Dispersion
    J.C. Weil

    Flow and Dispersion in Street Canyons
    Jong-Jin Baik

    Air Flow through Tunnels
    Hong-Ming Jang and Falin Chen

    Sound Outdoors and Noise Pollution
    D.K. Wilson, E.T. Nykaza, M.J. White, M.E. Swearingen, L.L. Pater, and G.A. Luz

    Riverine Transport, Mixing, and Dispersion
    J. Ezequiel Martin, Meredith L. Carr, and Marcelo H. García

    Ocean Outfalls
    Philip J.W. Roberts

    Modeling Oil Spills to Mitigate Coastal Pollution
    Poojitha D. Yapa

    Miscible and Immiscible Pollutants in Subsurface Systems
    Tissa H. Illangasekare and Christophe C. Frippiat

    Part III Numerical Modeling of Environmental Flows

    Turbulent Flow Modeling
    Sukanta Basu

    Direct and Large Eddy Simulation of Environmental Flows
    Sutanu Sarkar and Vincenzo Armenio

    Multiscale Nesting and High Performance Computing
    Alex Mahalov and Mohamed Moustaoui

    Multiscale Representations
    Marie Farge, Kai Schneider, Olivier Pannekoucke, and Romain Nguyen van yen

    Dispersion Modeling
    Akula Venkatram

    Modeling the Urban Boundary and Canopy Layers
    Jason Ching and Fei Chen

    Air Pollution Modeling and Its Applications
    Daewon W. Byun
    (In Memoriam by Kenneth L. Schere)

    Mathematical Models to Improve Performance of Surface Irrigation Systems
    D. Zerihun and C.A. Sanchez

    Cyberinfrastructure and Community Environmental Modeling
    J.P.M. Syvitski, Scott D. Peckham, Olaf David, Jonathan L. Goodall, Cecelia Deluca, and Gerhard Theurich

    Uncertainty in Environmental NWP Modeling
    David R. Stauffer

    Part IV Laboratory Modeling of Environmental Flows

    Physical Modeling of Hydraulics and Sediment Transport
    Olivier Cazaillet, Sultan Alam, and Clinton S. Willson

    Laboratory Modeling
    Stuart B. Dalziel

    General Laboratory Techniques
    Thomas Peacock

    Hot-Wire Anemometry in Turbulence Research
    Eliezer Kit

    Optical Methods and Unconventional Experimental Setups in Turbulence Research
    Roi Gurka and Eliezer Kit

    Part V Environmental Measurements

    Hydrophysical Measurements in Natural Waters
    Elena Roget

    Flow Measurements in the Atmosphere
    Ronald J. Calhoun

    Atmospheric Flux Measurements
    Eric R. Pardyjak, Chad W. Higgins, and Marc B. Parlange

    Clear-Air Radar Profiling of Wind and Turbulence in the Lower Atmosphere
    Jean-Luc Caccia



    Harindra Joseph Shermal Fernando is the Wayne and Diana Murdy Endowed Professor of Engineering and Geosciences at the University of Notre Dame, with the primary affiliation in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences and a concurrent appointment in the Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. He has received numerous awards and honors, including a UNESCO Team Gold Medal (1979), Presidential Young Investigator Award (NSF, 1986), and Rieger Foundation Distinguished Scholar Award in Environmental Sciences (2001). He is a fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, American Physical Society, and American Meteorological Society and was elected to the European Academy in 2009. He serves on the editorial boards of Applied Mechanics Reviews (associate editor), Theoretical and Computational Fluid Dynamics (editor, 1997–), IAHR Journal of Hydro-Environment (associate editor), Physics of Fluids (associate editor) and EGS Journal of Non-Linear Processes in Geophysics (editor). He is also the editor in chief of the Journal of Environmental Fluid Dynamics. Professor Fernando has published more than 225 papers spanning nearly 50 international peer-reviewed journals.

    Praise for the Two-Volume Set

    "I strongly recommend the two-volume Handbook of Environmental Fluid Dynamics to all scientists and engineers involved in or just intrigued by the interplay of fluid dynamics with the environment. Guided by the skillful editorship of Joe Fernando, and dedicated to the memory of Owen M. Phillips, a marvelous teacher and one of the top geophysical fluid dynamicists of the past century, every topic of importance in environmental fluid dynamics is superbly addressed by an outstanding selection of authors; I predict the books will be an important resource for years to come."
    —Professor James J. Riley, University of Washington

    "This handbook is probably the most prestigious and broadest survey in environmental fluid dynamics that has come to light so far. It brings together state-of-the-art knowledge of leading experts in topics ranging from climate change and risk assessment to more fundamental subjects such as turbulence and dispersion within two volumes and 81 chapters. It promises to become one of the most important references in this field."
    —Professor Jan-Bert Flór, Laboratoire des Ecoulements Géophysiques et Industriels, CNRS

    "Dr. Fernando has assembled an impressive team of contributors from a wide range of fields. The book is as close to a comprehensive view of the field as possible in one handbook."
    —Professor John S. Gulliver, University of Minnesota

    "This grand two-volume set provides an excellent exposé of the vast interdisciplinary field of environmental fluid dynamics including its societal importance. The work spans time and space scales ranging from small-scale stratified turbulence to large-scale climate and introduces the reader to the many observational, theoretical, and numerical techniques used to study outdoor flows—a great resource."
    —Dr. Peter Sullivan, National Center for Atmospheric Research

    "I will definitely recommend this handbook to students and stakeholders concerned by environmental problems."
    —Professor Philippe Fraunié, Université du Sud Toulon-Var