With major implications for applied physics, engineering, and the natural and social sciences, the rapidly growing area of environmental fluid dynamics focuses on the interactions of human activities, environment, and fluid motion. A landmark for the field, the two-volume Handbook of Environmental Fluid Dynamics presents the basic principles, fundamental flow processes, modeling techniques, and measurement methods used in the study of environmental motions. It also offers critical discussions of environmental sustainability related to engineering.
The handbook features 81 chapters written by 135 renowned researchers from around the world. Covering environmental, policy, biological, and chemical aspects, it tackles important cross-disciplinary topics such as sustainability, ecology, pollution, micrometeorology, and limnology.
Volume Two: Systems, Pollution, Modeling, and Measurements explores the interactions between engineered structures and anthropogenic activities that affect natural flows, with particular emphasis on environmental pollution. The book covers the numerical methodologies that underpin research, predictive modeling, and cyber-infrastructure developments. It also addresses practical aspects of laboratory experiments and field observations that validate quantitative predictions and help identify new phenomena and processes.
As communities face existential challenges posed by climate change, rapid urbanization, and scarcity of water and energy, the study of environmental fluid dynamics becomes increasingly relevant. This volume is a valuable resource for students, researchers, and policymakers working to better understand environmental motions and how they affect and are influenced by anthropogenic activities.
Table of Contents
Part I Engineered Systems and Anthropogenic Influence
Water Distribution Systems
Groundwater–Surface Water Discharges
Christopher Butler and Thomas C. Harmon
Fluid Mechanics of Agricultural Systems
Desalination and the Environment
M.J. Davidson and C.J. Oliver
Scott A. Socolofsky and Chris R. Rehmann
Scour around Hydraulic Structures
F. Sotiropoulos, P. Diplas, and A. Khosronejad
Flow through Urban Canopies
Rex E. Britter and Silvana Di Sabatino
Flow through Buildings
Nigel Berkeley Kaye and Morris R. Flynn
Bluff Body Aerodynamics and Aeroelasticity
Urban Heat Islands
Part II Environmental Pollution
Flow and Dispersion in Street Canyons
Air Flow through Tunnels
Hong-Ming Jang and Falin Chen
Sound Outdoors and Noise Pollution
D.K. Wilson, E.T. Nykaza, M.J. White, M.E. Swearingen, L.L. Pater, and G.A. Luz
Riverine Transport, Mixing, and Dispersion
J. Ezequiel Martin, Meredith L. Carr, and Marcelo H. García
Philip J.W. Roberts
Modeling Oil Spills to Mitigate Coastal Pollution
Poojitha D. Yapa
Miscible and Immiscible Pollutants in Subsurface Systems
Tissa H. Illangasekare and Christophe C. Frippiat
Part III Numerical Modeling of Environmental Flows
Turbulent Flow Modeling
Direct and Large Eddy Simulation of Environmental Flows
Sutanu Sarkar and Vincenzo Armenio
Multiscale Nesting and High Performance Computing
Alex Mahalov and Mohamed Moustaoui
Marie Farge, Kai Schneider, Olivier Pannekoucke, and Romain Nguyen van yen
Modeling the Urban Boundary and Canopy Layers
Jason Ching and Fei Chen
Air Pollution Modeling and Its Applications
Daewon W. Byun
(In Memoriam by Kenneth L. Schere)
Mathematical Models to Improve Performance of Surface Irrigation Systems
D. Zerihun and C.A. Sanchez
Cyberinfrastructure and Community Environmental Modeling
J.P.M. Syvitski, Scott D. Peckham, Olaf David, Jonathan L. Goodall, Cecelia Deluca, and Gerhard Theurich
Uncertainty in Environmental NWP Modeling
David R. Stauffer
Part IV Laboratory Modeling of Environmental Flows
Physical Modeling of Hydraulics and Sediment Transport
Olivier Cazaillet, Sultan Alam, and Clinton S. Willson
Stuart B. Dalziel
General Laboratory Techniques
Hot-Wire Anemometry in Turbulence Research
Optical Methods and Unconventional Experimental Setups in Turbulence Research
Roi Gurka and Eliezer Kit
Part V Environmental Measurements
Hydrophysical Measurements in Natural Waters
Flow Measurements in the Atmosphere
Ronald J. Calhoun
Atmospheric Flux Measurements
Eric R. Pardyjak, Chad W. Higgins, and Marc B. Parlange
Clear-Air Radar Profiling of Wind and Turbulence in the Lower Atmosphere
Harindra Joseph Shermal Fernando is the Wayne and Diana Murdy Endowed Professor of Engineering and Geosciences at the University of Notre Dame, with the primary affiliation in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences and a concurrent appointment in the Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. He has received numerous awards and honors, including a UNESCO Team Gold Medal (1979), Presidential Young Investigator Award (NSF, 1986), and Rieger Foundation Distinguished Scholar Award in Environmental Sciences (2001). He is a fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, American Physical Society, and American Meteorological Society and was elected to the European Academy in 2009. He serves on the editorial boards of Applied Mechanics Reviews (associate editor), Theoretical and Computational Fluid Dynamics (editor, 1997–), IAHR Journal of Hydro-Environment (associate editor), Physics of Fluids (associate editor) and EGS Journal of Non-Linear Processes in Geophysics (editor). He is also the editor in chief of the Journal of Environmental Fluid Dynamics. Professor Fernando has published more than 225 papers spanning nearly 50 international peer-reviewed journals.
Praise for the Two-Volume Set
"I strongly recommend the two-volume Handbook of Environmental Fluid Dynamics to all scientists and engineers involved in or just intrigued by the interplay of fluid dynamics with the environment. Guided by the skillful editorship of Joe Fernando, and dedicated to the memory of Owen M. Phillips, a marvelous teacher and one of the top geophysical fluid dynamicists of the past century, every topic of importance in environmental fluid dynamics is superbly addressed by an outstanding selection of authors; I predict the books will be an important resource for years to come."
—Professor James J. Riley, University of Washington
"This handbook is probably the most prestigious and broadest survey in environmental fluid dynamics that has come to light so far. It brings together state-of-the-art knowledge of leading experts in topics ranging from climate change and risk assessment to more fundamental subjects such as turbulence and dispersion within two volumes and 81 chapters. It promises to become one of the most important references in this field."
—Professor Jan-Bert Flór, Laboratoire des Ecoulements Géophysiques et Industriels, CNRS
"Dr. Fernando has assembled an impressive team of contributors from a wide range of fields. The book is as close to a comprehensive view of the field as possible in one handbook."
—Professor John S. Gulliver, University of Minnesota
"This grand two-volume set provides an excellent exposé of the vast interdisciplinary field of environmental fluid dynamics including its societal importance. The work spans time and space scales ranging from small-scale stratified turbulence to large-scale climate and introduces the reader to the many observational, theoretical, and numerical techniques used to study outdoor flows—a great resource."
—Dr. Peter Sullivan, National Center for Atmospheric Research
"I will definitely recommend this handbook to students and stakeholders concerned by environmental problems."
—Professor Philippe Fraunié, Université du Sud Toulon-Var