1st Edition

Handbook of Ethnography in Healthcare Research

Edited By Paul Hackett, Christopher Hayre Copyright 2021
    556 Pages 24 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    556 Pages 24 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    This handbook provides an up-to-date reference point for ethnography in healthcare research. Taking a multi-disciplinary approach, the chapters offer a holistic view of ethnography within medical contexts.

    This edited volume is organized around major methodological themes, such as ethics, interviews, narrative analysis and mixed methods. Through the use of case studies, it illustrates how methodological considerations for ethnographic healthcare research are distinct from those in other fields. It has detailed content on the methodological facets of undertaking ethnography for prospective researchers to help them to conduct research in both an ethical and safe manner. It also highlights important issues such as the role of the researcher as the key research instrument, exploring how one’s social behaviours enable the researcher to ‘get closer’ to his/her participants and thus uncover original phenomena. Furthermore, it invites critical discussion of applied methodological strategies within the global academic community by pushing forward the use of ethnography to enhance the body of knowledge in the field.

    The book offers an original guide for advanced students, prospective ethnographers, and healthcare professionals aiming to utilize this methodological approach.



    Foreword (Shane Blackman)

    Section 1: Introduction

    1. Introducing Ethnography and its Rationale for Healthcare Practitioner Use (Christopher M. Hayre and Paul M. W. Hackett)

    Section 2: Ethical Considerations

    2. Ethical Considerations in Ethnography (Jessica Schwarzenbach and Paul M. W. Hackett)

    3. Ethics of Online Research with Human Participants (Jeff Gavin and Karen Rodham)

    4. Cultural Variation in Informed Consent for Clinical Research Participation (David Resnik and Julia Hecking)

    5. Encountering Hostility in Ethnographic Research (Christopher M. Hayre and Paul M. W. Hackett)

    Section 3: Design and planning

    6. The door-to-door ethnographer: Recruiting patients and health care providers for ethnographic research (Melinda Rea Holloway and Steve Hagelman)

    7. Ethnographic research design (Ruth Mongomery-Andersen and Michelle Doucette Issaluk)

    8. The declarative mapping sentence as a framework for conducting ethnographic health research (Paul M. W. Hackett)

    Section 4: Interviewing in ethnographic research

    9. Getting deep in the pain: Understanding people through ethnographic research (Antonella Fabri)

    10. An Ethnography of a Play Environment (Hira Hasan)

    11. To be on a diet: Ethnography of weight loss between beauty, food and violence (Martina Grimaldi)

    12. The Clinician-Patient Interaction – Crossing the chasm of expectations (Gillie Gabay)

    13. Constructing Ethnographic Data In Medical Education (Jonathan Tummons)

    Section 5: Visual/Sensory Ethnography

    14. Visual Ethnography in Health and Healthcare: Concepts, Steps and Good Practice (Laura Lorenz and Bettina Kolb)

    Section 6: Auto/ethnography

    15. Institution(alization), bureaucracy and wellbeing? An organizational ethnography of perinatal care within the National Health Service (Tom Vine)

    16. Critical Auto/ethnography and Mental Health Research (Stacy Holman-Jones and Anne Harris)

    Section 7: Observational methods in ethnographic research

    17. Ethnographers in scrubs: Ethnographic observation within healthcare (Melinda Rea Holloway and Steve Hagelman)

    18. Ethnographic investigations of a diagnostic imaging department (Ruth Strudwick)

    19. The ALIVE! Project: Understanding the intersection Between Faith and Soul Food Using Ethnographic Methods (Deidre Guthrie)

    Section 8: Note taking and writing up

    20. Field Notes in Ethnographic Research (Ruth Strudwick)

    21. Writing and Representation (Michael Klingenberg)

    Section 9: Journals and diaries

    22. From Happy Meals to Real Play (Nick Agafonoff)

    23. Ethnographic diaries and journals: principles, practices and dilemmas (Graham Hall)

    Section 10: Narrative Analysis

    24. Narrative ethnography: How to study stories in the context of their telling (Ditte Andersen)

    25. In the Quest of Resilience in Elder Patients (Gillie Gabay)

    26. An the Anthropologist Made the ‘Emotional Note’ (Haris Agic)

    Section 11: Projective Techniques

    27. Projective techniques in health research (Taylor Malone and Paul M. W. Hackett)

    28. Being Creative Using Projective Techniques (Paul M. W. Hackett)

    Section 12: Focus Groups

    29. Using Focus Groups in Healthcare Research (Alicia Carlson and Paul Hackett)

    30. Focus Group Research in Healthcare (Immy Holloway)

    Section 13: Multiple Methods

    31. Becoming a physician of the people in a rural mountain community in Mexico (Deidre Guthrie)

    32. Breaking Down Silos: The Value of Interdisciplinary production of knowledge for (health) innovation (Tamira Snell)

    Section 14: Analysing data

    33. Analyzing the data: Conditions-, meanings-, and reasoning analysis (Tine Agaard)

    34. Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Software (CAQDAS) and Ethnographic Health Research (Áine Humble)

    35. Ethnographic and Qualitative Data Analysis (Immy Holloway)

    36. Ethnographic Creative Non-Fiction: The Creation and Evolution of Lily’s Lymphedema (Elise Radina)

    Section 15: Novel Approaches

    37. Mapping Network Disturbances: Case Studies that demonstrate the use of an ethnographic approach to health and well-being research (Maria Louise Bønnelykke)

    38. Why happiness studies ought to include qualitative research components (Cathrine Jansson-Boyd and Anke Plagnol )

    39. A Whole-School Approach to Health and Wellbeing: A Case Study of a Primary School (Jonathan Glazzard)

    Section 16: Conclusion

    40. Conclusions and the future of ethnography in health related research: challenges and innovations (Paul M. W. Hackett and Christopher M. Hayre)

    41. Coronavirus and COVID-19: Qualitative Healthcare Research During and After the Pandemic (Paul M. W. Hackett and Christopher M. Hayre)

    42. Black Lives Matter: Birdwatching in Central Park and the Murder of George Floyd (Paul M.W. Hackett and Jessica Schwarzenbach)


    Paul M.W. Hackett is professor in ethnography at Emerson College, Boston, USA, a visiting professor in health research at the University of Suffolk, UK, and a visiting scholar at the Royal Anthropological Institute in London. He has developed the declarative mapping sentence out of his research which is concerned with the categorial understanding that humans have of their world and how such understanding underpins and facilitates behaviour, drawing upon several branches of psychology, philosophy, anthropology, and research methods. His publications include around 20 books and articles in leading journals.

    Christopher M. Hayre is a senior lecturer at Charles Sturt University in New South Wales, Australia. He has published both qualitative and quantitative refereed papers in the field of medical imaging and brought together several books in the field of medical imaging, health research, technology, and ethnography.