2nd Edition

Handbook of Geotechnical Investigation and Design Tables Second Edition

By Burt G. Look Copyright 2014
    418 Pages 40 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    418 Pages
    by CRC Press

    This practical handbook of properties for soils and rock contains in a concise tabular format the key issues relevant to geotechnical investigations, assessments and designs in common practice. There are brief notes on the application of the tables. These data tables are compiled for experienced geotechnical professionals who require a reference document to access key information. There is an extensive database of correlations for different applications. The book should provide a useful bridge between soil and rock mechanics theory and its application to practical engineering solutions.

    The initial chapters deal with the planning of the geotechnical investigation and the classification of the soil and rock properties, after which some of the more used testing is covered. Later chapters show the reliability and correlations that are used to convert that data in the interpretative and assessment phase of the project. The final chapters apply some of these concepts to geotechnical design. The emphasis throughout is on application to practice.

    This book is intended primarily for practicing geotechnical engineers working in investigation, assessment and design, but should provide a useful supplement for postgraduate courses. It evolved from the need to have a "go to" reference book which has both breadth and depth of information to apply immediately to projects. To keep to a handbook size one has to compress/restrict details to a few key bullet points – but a comprehensive reference list provides the "appendix" for additional information if required. This 2nd edition keeps to that format but contains updated information and adjustments that take into account feedback received since initial publication.

    1 Site investigation
    1.1 Geotechnical engineer
    1.2 Developing models
    1.3 Geotechnical involvement
    1.4 Geotechnical requirements for the different project phases
    1.5 Relevance of scale
    1.6 Planning of site investigation
    1.7 Planning of groundwater investigation
    1.8 Level of investigation
    1.9 Planning prior to ground truthing
    1.10 Extent of investigation
    1.11 Site investigation for driven piles to rock
    1.12 Volume sampled
    1.13 Relative risk ranking of developments
    1.14 Sample amount
    1.15 Sample disturbance
    1.16 Sample size
    1.17 Quality of site investigation
    1.18 Costing of investigation
    1.19 Site investigation costs
    1.20 The business of site investigation

    2 Soil classification and description
    2.1 Important information
    2.2 Soil borehole record
    2.3 Borehole record in the field
    2.4 Drilling information
    2.5 Water level
    2.6 Soil type
    2.7 Major and minor components of soil descriptions
    2.8 Field guide identification
    2.9 Sedimentation test
    2.10 Unified soil classification
    2.11 Particle description
    2.12 Gradings
    2.13 Colour
    2.14 Soil plasticity
    2.15 Atterberg limits
    2.16 Consistency of cohesive soils
    2.17 Consistency of non-cohesive soils
    2.18 Structure
    2.19 Moisture content
    2.20 Origin
    2.21 Comparison of characteristics between residual and transported soils
    2.22 Classification of residual soils by its primary mode of occurrence

    3 Rock classification
    3.1 Important rock information
    3.2 Rock description
    3.3 Field rock core log
    3.4 Drilling information
    3.5 Rock weathering
    3.6 Colour
    3.7 Rock structure
    3.8 Rock quality designation
    3.9 Rock strength
    3.10 Rock hardness
    3.11 Discontinuity scale effects
    3.12 Rock defects spacing
    3.13 Rock defects description
    3.14 Rock defect symbols
    3.15 Sedimentary and pyroclastic rock types
    3.16 Metamorphic and igneous rock types

    4 Field sampling and testing
    4.1 Types of sampling
    4.2 Boring types
    4.3 Field sampling
    4.4 Field testing
    4.5 Comparison of in situ tests
    4.6 Standard penetration test in soils
    4.7 Standard penetration test in rock
    4.8 Overburden correction factors to SPT result
    4.9 Equipment and borehole correction factors for SPT result
    4.10 Cone penetration test
    4.11 Dilatometer
    4.12 Pressuremeter test
    4.13 Vane shear
    4.14 Vane shear correction factor
    4.15 Dynamic cone penetrometer tests
    4.16 Light weight falling deflectometer
    4.17 Clegg impact soil tester
    4.18 Surface strength from site walk over
    4.19 Surface strength from vehicle drive over
    4.20 Operation of earth moving plant

    5 Soil strength parameters from classification and testing
    5.1 Errors in measurement
    5.2 Clay strength from pocket penetrometer
    5.3 Clay strength from SPT data
    5.4 Residual soils strength from SPT data
    5.5 Clean sand strength from SPT data
    5.6 Fine and coarse sand strength from SPT data
    5.7 Effect of aging
    5.8 Effect of angularity and grading on strength
    5.9 Critical state angles in sands
    5.10 Peak and critical state angles in sands
    5.11 Strength parameters from DCP data
    5.12 CBR value from soil classification test
    5.13 CBR value from DCP data
    5.14 CBR values from DCP data specific to soil type
    5.15 Allowable bearing capacity from DCP tests
    5.16 Soil classification from cone penetration tests
    5.17 Soil type from friction ratios
    5.18 Clay parameters from cone penetration tests
    5.19 Clay strength from cone penetration tests
    5.20 Simplified sand strength assessment from cone penetration tests
    5.21 Soil type from Dilatometer test
    5.22 Lateral soil pressure from Dilatometer test
    5.23 Soil strength of sand from Dilatometer test
    5.24 Clay strength from effective overburden
    5.25 Variation of undrained strength ratio

    6 Rock strength parameters from classification and testing
    6.1 Rock strength
    6.2 Typical refusal levels of drilling rig
    6.3 Parameters from drilling rig used
    6.4 Field evaluation of rock strength
    6.5 Rock strength from point load index values
    6.6 Strength from Schmidt hammer
    6.7 Strength assessment from RQD
    6.8 Relative change in strength between rock weathering grades
    6.9 Parameters from rock weathering
    6.10 Rock classification
    6.11 Rock strength from slope stability
    6.12 Typical field geologist’s rock strength
    6.13 Typical engineering geology rock strengths
    6.14 Relative strength – combined considerations
    6.15 Parameters from rock type
    6.16 Rock durability
    6.17 Material use

    7 Soil properties and state of the soil
    7.1 Soil behaviour
    7.2 State of the soil
    7.3 Soil weight
    7.4 Significance of colour
    7.5 Plasticity characteristics of common clay minerals
    7.6 Weighted plasticity index
    7.7 Effect of grading
    7.8 Effective friction of granular soils
    7.9 Effective strength of cohesive soils
    7.10 Over-consolidation ratio
    7.11 Pre-consolidation stress from cone penetration testing
    7.12 Pre-consolidation stress from Dilatometer
    7.13 Pre-consolidation stress from shear wave velocity
    7.14 Over-consolidation ratio from Dilatometer
    7.15 Lateral soil pressure from Dilatometer test
    7.16 Over consolidation ratio from undrained strength ratio and friction angles
    7.17 Over-consolidation ratio from undrained strength ratio
    7.18 Sign posts along the soil suction pF scale
    7.19 Soil suction values for different materials
    7.20 Capillary rise
    7.21 Equilibrium soil suctions in Australia
    7.22 Effect of climate on soil suction change
    7.23 Effect of climate on active zones
    7.24 Compaction concepts
    7.25 Effect of compaction on suction

    8 Permeability and its influence
    8.1 Typical values of permeability
    8.2 Permeability equivalents
    8.3 Comparison of permeability with various engineering materials
    8.4 Permeability based on grain size
    8.5 Permeability based on soil classification
    8.6 Permeability from dissipation tests
    8.7 Effect of pressure on permeability
    8.8 Effect of fines on permeability
    8.9 Permeability of compacted clays
    8.10 Effect of moulding water content on permeability
    8.11 Permeability of untreated and asphalt treated aggregates
    8.12 Dewatering methods applicable to various soils
    8.13 Radius of influence for drawdown
    8.14 Typical hydrological values
    8.15 Relationship between coefficients of permeability and consolidation
    8.16 Typical values of coefficient of consolidation
    8.17 Variation of coefficient of consolidation with liquid limit
    8.18 Coefficient of consolidation from dissipation tests
    8.19 Time factors for consolidation
    8.20 Time required for drainage of deposits
    8.21 Estimation of permeability of rock
    8.22 Effect of joints on rock permeability
    8.23 Lugeon tests in rock

    9 Rock properties
    9.1 General engineering properties of common rocks
    9.2 Rock weight
    9.3 Rock minerals
    9.4 Silica in igneous rocks
    9.5 Hardness scale
    9.6 Rock hardness
    9.7 Influence of properties on bored pile
    9.8 Mudstone–shale classification based on mineral proportion
    9.9 Relative change in rock property due to discontinuity
    9.10 Rock strength due to failure angle
    9.11 Rock defects and rock quality designation
    9.12 Rock laboratory to field strength
    9.13 Rock shear strength and friction angles of specific materials
    9.14 Rock shear strength from RQD values
    9.15 Rock shear strength and friction angles based on geologic origin
    9.16 Friction angles of rocks joints
    9.17 Asperity rock friction angles
    9.18 Shear strength of filled joints

    10 Material and testing variability with risk assessment
    10.1 Variability of materials
    10.2 Variability of soils
    10.3 Variability of in-situ tests
    10.4 Soil variability from laboratory testing
    10.5 Guidelines for inherent soil variability
    10.6 Compaction testing
    10.7 Guidelines for compaction control testing
    10.8 Subgrade and road material variability
    10.9 Deflection testing for pavements
    10.10 Distribution functions
    10.11 Distribution functions for rock strength
    10.12 Effect of distribution functions on rock strength
    10.13 CBR values for a linear (transportation) project
    10.14 Point load index values for a vertical linear (bridge) project
    10.15 Variability in design and construction process 1
    10.16 Prediction variability for experts compared with industry practice
    10.17 Variability in selecting design values
    10.18 Tolerable risk for new and existing slopes
    10.19 Probability of failures of rock slopes
    10.20 Qualitative risk analysis
    10.21 Qualitative measure of likelihood
    10.22 Qualitative measure of consequences to property
    10.23 Risk level implications
    10.24 Acceptable probability of slope failures
    10.25 Probabilities of failure based on lognormal distribution
    10.26 Project reliability
    10.27 Road reliability values
    10.28 Reliability index
    10.29 Concrete quality
    10.30 Soil property variation for reliability calibration
    10.31 Testing, spatial and temporal variation

    11 Deformation parameters
    11.1 Modulus definitions
    11.2 Small strain shear modulus
    11.3 Comparison of small to large strain modulus
    11.4 Strain levels for various applications
    11.5 Modulus applications
    11.6 Typical values for elastic parameters
    11.7 Elastic parameters of various soils
    11.8 Typical values for coefficient of volume compressibility
    11.9 Coefficient of volume compressibility derived from SPT
    11.10 Deformation parameters from CPT results
    11.11 Drained soil modulus from cone penetration tests
    11.12 Soil modulus in clays from SPT values
    11.13 Drained modulus of clays based on strength and plasticity
    11.14 Undrained modulus of clays for varying over consolidation ratios
    11.15 Soil modulus from SPT values and plasticity index
    11.16 Short and long term modulus
    11.17 Poisson ratio in soils
    11.18 Resilient modulus
    11.19 Typical rock deformation parameters
    11.20 Rock deformation parameters
    11.21 Rock mass modulus derived from the intact rock modulus
    11.22 Modulus ratio based on open and closed joints
    11.23 Rock modulus from rock mass ratings
    11.24 Poisson ratio in rock
    11.25 Significance of modulus

    12 Earthworks
    12.1 Earthworks issues
    12.2 Excavatability
    12.3 Excavation requirements
    12.4 Excavation characteristics
    12.5 Excavatability assessment
    12.6 Excavatability assessment for heavy ripping equipment
    12.7 Excavatability assessment based on seismic wave velocities
    12.8 Excavatability production rates
    12.9 Diggability index
    12.10 Diggability classification
    12.11 Excavations in rock
    12.12 Rippability rating chart
    12.13 Bulking factors
    12.14 Practical maximum layer thickness
    12.15 Large compaction equipment
    12.16 Ease of compaction
    12.17 Compaction requirements for various applications
    12.18 Required compaction
    12.19 Comparison of relative compaction and relative density
    12.20 Field characteristics of materials used in earthworks
    12.21 Typical compaction characteristics of materials used in earthworks
    12.22 Suitability of compaction plant
    12.23 Typical lift thickness
    12.24 Maximum size of equipment based on permissible vibration level
    12.25 Compaction required for different height of fill
    12.26 Typical compaction test results
    12.27 Field compaction testing
    12.28 Standard versus modified compaction
    12.29 Application of standard and modified compaction
    12.30 Effect of excess stones

    13 Subgrades and pavements
    13.1 Types of subgrades
    13.2 CBR laboratory model
    13.3 CBR tests in subgrade assessment
    13.4 CBR reporting
    13.5 CBR soaked and unsoaked tests
    13.6 Subgrade strength classification
    13.7 Damage from volumetrically active clays
    13.8 Subgrade volume change classification
    13.9 Minimising subgrade volume change
    13.10 Subgrade moisture content
    13.11 Subgrade strength correction factors to soaked CBR
    13.12 Approximate CBR of clay subgrade
    13.13 Typical values of subgrade CBR
    13.14 Properties of mechanically stable gradings
    13.15 Soil stabilisation with additives
    13.16 Soil stabilisation with cement
    13.17 Effect of cement soil stabilisation
    13.18 Soil stabilisation with lime
    13.19 Lime stabilisation rules of thumb
    13.20 Soil stabilisation with bitumen
    13.21 Pavement strength for gravels
    13.22 CBR values for pavements
    13.23 CBR swell in pavements
    13.24 Plasticity index properties of pavement materials
    13.25 Typical CBR values of pavement materials
    13.26 Typical values of pavement modulus
    13.27 Typical values of existing pavement modulus
    13.28 Equivalent modulus of sub bases for normal base material
    13.29 Equivalent modulus of sub bases for high standard base material
    13.30 Typical relationship of modulus with subgrade CBR
    13.31 Typical relationship of modulus with base course CBR
    13.32 Aggregate loss to weak subgrades
    13.33 Elastic modulus of asphalt
    13.34 Poisson ratio
    13.35 Specific gravity

    14 Slopes
    14.1 Slope measurement
    14.2 Factors causing slope movements
    14.3 Causes of slope failure
    14.4 Factors of safety for slopes
    14.5 Factor of safety for different input assumptions
    14.6 Comparison of factor of safety with probability if failure
    14.7 Factors of safety for new slopes
    14.8 Factors of safety for existing slopes
    14.9 Risk to life
    14.10 Economic and environmental risk
    14.11 Cut slopes
    14.12 Fill slopes
    14.13 Factors of safety for dam walls
    14.14 Typical slopes for low height dam walls
    14.15 Effect of height on slopes for low height dam walls
    14.16 Design elements of a dam walls
    14.17 Stable slopes of levees and canals
    14.18 Slopes for revetments
    14.19 Crest levels based on revetment type
    14.20 Crest levels based on revetment slope
    14.21 Stable slopes underwater
    14.22 Side slopes for canals in different materials
    14.23 Seismic slope stability
    14.24 Stable topsoil slopes
    14.25 Design of slopes in rock cuttings and embankments
    14.26 Factors affecting the stability of rock slopes
    14.27 Rock falls
    14.28 Coefficient of restitution
    14.29 Rock cut stabilization measures
    14.30 Rock trap ditch
    14.31 Trenching

    15 Terrain assessment, drainage and erosion
    15.1 Terrain evaluation
    15.2 Scale effects in interpretation of aerial photos
    15.3 Development grades
    15.4 Equivalent gradients for construction equipment
    15.5 Development procedures
    15.6 Terrain categories
    15.7 Landslide classification
    15.8 Landslide velocity scales
    15.9 Slope erodibility
    15.10 Erodibility hierarchy
    15.11 Soil erosion
    15.12 Soil dispersivity
    15.13 Erosion thresholds
    15.14 Sediment loss from linear vs. concave slopes
    15.15 Typical erosion velocities based on material
    15.16 Typical erosion velocities based on depth of flow
    15.17 Erosion control
    15.18 Benching of slopes
    15.19 Subsurface drain designs
    15.20 Subsurface drains based on soil types
    15.21 Open channel seepages
    15.22 Comparison between open channel flows and seepages through soils
    15.23 Drainage measures factors of safety
    15.24 Aggregate drains
    15.25 Aggregate drainage properties
    15.26 Discharge capacity of stone filled drains
    15.27 Slopes for chimney drains
    15.28 Drainage blankets
    15.29 Resistance to piping
    15.30 Soil filters
    15.31 Seepage loss through earth dams
    15.32 Clay blanket thicknesses

    16 Geosynthetics
    16.1 Type of geosynthetics
    16.2 Geosynthetic properties
    16.3 Geosynthetic functions
    16.4 Leakage rates
    16.5 Static puncture resistance of geotextiles
    16.6 Construction survivability ratings
    16.7 Physical property requirements
    16.8 Robustness classification using the G– rating
    16.9 Geotextile durability for filters, drains and seals
    16.10 Geotextile durability for ground conditions and construction equipment
    16.11 Geotextile durability for cover material and construction equipment
    16.12 Robustness geotextile specifications based on strength class
    16.13 Establishing geotextile strength class
    16.14 Establishing geotextile strength class adjacent to walls
    16.15 Pavement reduction with geotextiles
    16.16 Bearing capacity factors using geotextiles
    16.17 Geotextiles for separation and reinforcement
    16.18 Reinforcement location
    16.19 Geotextiles as a soil filter
    16.20 Geotextile strength for silt fences
    16.21 Typical geotextile strengths
    16.22 Geotextile overlap
    16.23 Modulus improvements with Geosynthetic inclusions

    17 Fill specifications
    17.1 Specification development
    17.2 Pavement material aggregate quality requirements
    17.3 Backfill requirements
    17.4 Typical grading of granular drainage material
    17.5 Pipe bedding materials
    17.6 Compacted earth linings
    17.7 Constructing layers on a slope
    17.8 Durability of pavements
    17.9 Dams specifications
    17.10 Frequency of testing
    17.11 Rock revetments
    17.12 Durability
    17.13 Durability of breakwater
    17.14 Compaction requirements
    17.15 Earthworks control
    17.16 Typical compaction requirements
    17.17 Typical compacted modulus values
    17.18 Compaction layer thickness
    17.19 Achievable compaction
    17.20 Acceptable levels of ground vibration

    18 Rock mass classification systems
    18.1 The rock mass rating systems
    18.2 Rock Mass Rating System – RMR
    18.3 RMR system – strength and RQD
    18.4 RMR system – discontinuities
    18.5 RMR – groundwater
    18.6 RMR – adjustment for discontinuity orientations
    18.7 RMR – strength parameters
    18.8 RMR – application to tunnels, cuts and foundations
    18.9 RMR – excavation and support of tunnels
    18.10 Norwegian Q system
    18.11 Relative block size
    18.12 RQD from volumetric joint count
    18.13 Relative frictional strength
    18.14 Active stress – relative effects of water, faulting, strength/stress ratio
    18.15 Stress reduction factor
    18.16 Selecting safety level using the Q system
    18.17 Support requirements using the Q system
    18.18 Prediction of support requirements using Q values
    18.19 Prediction of bolt and concrete support using Q values
    18.20 Prediction of velocity using Q values
    18.21 Prediction of Lugeon using Q values
    18.22 Prediction of advancement of tunnel using Q values
    18.23 Relative cost for tunnelling using Q values
    18.24 Prediction of cohesive and frictional strength using Q values
    18.25 Prediction of strength and material parameters using Q values
    18.26 Prediction of deformation and closure using Q values
    18.27 Prediction of support pressure and unsupported span using Q values
    18.28 Geological strength index – structure description
    18.29 Geological strength index – discontinuity description
    18.30 Geological strength index – estimating value
    18.31 Relationship of rock constant m
    18.32 Geological strength index – values of parameter m for a range of rock types
    18.33 Mohr-Coulomb strength parameters derived from GSI

    19 Earth pressures
    19.1 Earth pressures
    19.2 Limit state modes
    19.3 Earth pressure distributions
    19.4 Coefficients of earth pressure at rest
    19.5 Variation of at rest earth pressure with OCR
    19.6 Variation of at rest earth pressure with OCR using the elastic at rest coefficient
    19.7 Movements associated with earth pressures
    19.8 Active and passive earth pressures
    19.9 Distribution of earth pressure
    19.10 Application of at rest and active conditions
    19.11 Application of passive pressure
    19.12 Use of wall friction
    19.13 Values of active earth pressures
    19.14 Values of passive earth pressures
    19.15 Compaction induced pressures
    19.16 Live loads from excavators and lifting equipment

    20 Retaining walls
    20.1 Wall types
    20.2 Gravity walls
    20.3 Effect of slope behind walls
    20.4 Embedded retaining walls
    20.5 Typical pier spacing for embedded retaining walls
    20.6 Wall drainage
    20.7 Minimum wall embedment depths for reinforced soil structures
    20.8 Reinforced soil wall design parameters
    20.9 Location of potential failure surfaces for reinforced soil walls
    20.10 Sacrificial thickness for metallic reinforcement
    20.11 Reinforced slopes factors of safety
    20.12 Soil slope facings
    20.13 Wall types for cuttings in rock
    20.14 Drilled and grouted soil nail designs
    20.15 Driven soil nail designs
    20.16 Sacrificial thickness for metallic reinforcement
    20.17 Design of facing
    20.18 Shotcrete thickness for wall facings
    20.19 Details of anchored walls and facings
    20.20 Anchored wall loads
    20.21 Anchor ultimate values for load transfer in soils
    20.22 Rock anchor bond stress
    20.23 Anchor bond length

    21 Soil foundations
    21.1 Foundation descriptions
    21.2 Techniques for foundation treatment
    21.3 Types of foundations
    21.4 Strength parameters from soil description
    21.5 Bearing capacity
    21.6 Bearing capacity factors
    21.7 Bearing capacity of cohesive soils
    21.8 Bearing capacity of granular soils
    21.9 Settlements in granular soils
    21.10 Upper limits of settlement in sands
    21.11 Factors of safety for shallow foundations
    21.12 Factors of safety for driven pile foundations
    21.13 Pile characteristics
    21.14 Working loads for tubular steel piles
    21.15 Working loads for steel H piles
    21.16 Load carrying capacity for piles
    21.17 Pile shaft capacity
    21.18 Pile frictional values from sand
    21.19 Earth pressure coefficient after pile installation
    21.20 End bearing of piles
    21.21 Pile shaft resistance in coarse material based on N-value
    21.22 Pile base resistance in coarse material based on N–value
    21.23 Design parameters for pipe piles in cohesionless siliceous soils
    21.24 Pile interactions
    21.25 Influence zone for end bearing piles in sands
    21.26 Point of fixity
    21.27 Uplift on piles
    21.28 Plugging of steel piles
    21.29 Time effects on pile capacity
    21.30 Piled raft foundations for buildings
    21.31 Piled embankments for highways and high speed trains
    21.32 Dynamic magnification of loads on piled rafts for highways and high speed trains
    21.33 Allowable lateral pile loads
    21.34 Load deflection relationship for concrete piles in sands
    21.35 Load deflection relationship for concrete piles in clays
    21.36 Bending moments for PSC piles in stiff clays

    22 Rock foundations
    22.1 Rock bearing capacity based on RQD
    22.2 Rock parameters from SPT data
    22.3 Bearing capacity modes of failure
    22.4 Compression capacity of rock for uniaxial failure mode
    22.5 Ultimate compression capacity of rock for shallow foundations
    22.6 Compression capacity of rock for a shear zone failure mode
    22.7 Rock bearing capacity factors
    22.8 Compression capacity of rock for splitting failure
    22.9 Rock bearing capacity factor for discontinuity spacing
    22.10 Compression capacity of rock for flexure and punching failure modes
    22.11 Factors of safety for design of deep foundations
    22.12 Control factors
    22.13 Ultimate compression capacity of rock for driven piles
    22.14 Shaft capacity for bored piles
    22.15 Shaft resistance roughness
    22.16 Shaft resistance based on roughness class
    22.17 Design shaft resistance in rock
    22.18 End bearing capacity of rock socketed piles
    22.19 Load settlement of piles
    22.20 Pile refusal
    22.21 Limiting penetration rates
    22.22 Pile installation

    23 Movements
    23.1 Types of movements
    23.2 Foundation movements
    23.3 Immediate to total settlements
    23.4 Consolidation settlements
    23.5 Typical self-weight settlements
    23.6 Limiting movements for structures
    23.7 Limiting angular distortion
    23.8 Relationship of damage to angular distortion and horizontal strain
    23.9 Movements at soil nail walls
    23.10 Tolerable strains for reinforced slopes and embankments
    23.11 Movements in inclinometers
    23.12 Acceptable movement in highway bridges
    23.13 Acceptable angular distortion for highway bridges
    23.14 Serviceability and ultimate piles design
    23.15 Tolerable displacement for slopes and walls
    23.16 Observed settlements behind excavations
    23.17 Settlements adjacent to open cuts for various support systems
    23.18 Tolerable displacement in seismic slope stability analysis
    23.19 Seismic performance criteria
    23.20 Rock displacement
    23.21 Allowable rut depths
    23.22 Levels of rutting for various road functions
    23.23 Free surface movements for light buildings
    23.24 Free surface movements for road pavements
    23.25 Allowable strains for roadways
    23.26 Limiting strains for mine haul roads
    23.27 Tolerable deflection for roads
    23.28 Tolerable deflection for roads based on CBR
    23.29 Tolerable deflection for proof rolling
    23.30 Peak particle velocity
    23.31 Vibration from typical construction operations
    23.32 Perception levels of vibration

    24 Appendix – loading
    24.1 Characteristic values of bulk solids
    24.2 Surcharge pressures
    24.3 Live load on sloping backfill
    24.4 Construction loads
    24.5 Ground bearing pressure of construction equipment
    24.6 Vertical stress changes

    25 Appendix – conversions
    25.1 Length, area and volume
    25.2 Mass, density, force and pressure
    25.3 Permeability and consolidation

    26 References
    26.1 General – most used
    26.2 Geotechnical investigations and assessment
    26.3 Geotechnical analysis and design



    Burt G. Look