Handbook of Heritage, Community, and Native American Languages in the United States: Research, Policy, and Educational Practice (Paperback) book cover

Handbook of Heritage, Community, and Native American Languages in the United States

Research, Policy, and Educational Practice

Edited by Terrence G. Wiley, Joy Kreeft Peyton, Donna Christian, Sarah Catherine K. Moore, Na Liu

© 2014 – Routledge

410 pages

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Co-published by the Center for Applied Linguistics

Timely and comprehensive, this state-of-the-art overview of major issues related to heritage, community, and Native American languages in the United States, based on the work of noted authorities, draws from a variety of perspectives—the speakers; use of the languages in the home, community, and wider society; patterns of acquisition, retention, loss, and revitalization of the languages; and specific education efforts devoted to developing stronger connections with and proficiency in them. Contributions on language use, programs and instruction, and policy focus on issues that are applicable to many heritage language contexts. Offering a foundational perspective for serious students of heritage, community, and Native American languages as they are learned in the classroom, transmitted across generations in families, and used in communities, the volume provides background on the history and current status of many languages in the linguistic mosaic of U.S. society and stresses the importance of drawing on these languages as societal, community, and individual resources, while also noting their strategic importance within the context of globalization.


"This anthology has a very broad scope. The chapters are relatively short, but the book is nonetheless comprehensive and well organized. Contributors include established, well-respected experts such as Joshua Fishman, as well as expert but newer scholars. … A needed and useful collection. Summing Up: Highly recommended. All academic levels/libraries." - C.L. Thompson, Indiana University-Purdue University, Fort Wayne, in CHOICE, October 2014

"This welcome, and timely work [is distinguished by] its breadth and depth of coverage and expertise of the contributors." - G. Richard Tucker, Department of Modern Languages, Carnegie Mellon University, USA

"A valuable contribution to helping policy-makers and educators better understand the dimensions of the challenges and the largely untapped resources that reside in our heritage communities." - Catherine Ingold, Director, National Foreign Language Center, University of Maryland, USA

"…makes available in a single volume the current knowledge, insights, and experiences of many important leaders and researchers in the Heritage Language field. Usable by both professionals and students, it can serve as an introduction to the field, as a reference for those already involved in it, and as an inspiration to those who wish to contribute to this increasingly important enterprise." - Linda Godson, Coordinator, Heritage Language Initiative, Portland State University, USA

"The Handbook of Heritage, Community, and Native American Languages in the United States makes an important contribution to the field … The Handbook is meaningful for a large audience: virtually every chapter offers something for not just heritage school stakeholders, but also public school teachers, researchers, and other interested parties. … Although the field is still emerging and its borders remain fuzzy, the Handbook covers the subject effectively, and brings out the richness and variety inherent in the field." - Heritage Language Journal

Table of Contents




Section I: Foundations of Heritage, Community, and Native American Language Education


Terrence G. Wiley, Joy Kreeft Peyton, Donna Christian, Sarah Catherine K. Moore, and Na Liu

1. Demographic Realities, Challenges, and Opportunities

Molly Fee, Nancy C. Rhodes, and Terrence G. Wiley

2. The Problem of Defining Heritage and Community Languages and Their Speakers: On the Utility and Limitations of Definitional Constructs

Terrence G. Wiley

3. Heritage Language Students: Profiles and Possibilities

Guadalupe Valdés

4. Three Hundred-Plus Years of Heritage Language Education in the United States

Joshua A. Fishman

5. Policy Considerations for Promoting Heritage, Community, and Native American Languages

Terrence G. Wiley

6. Documenting Language Loss and Endangerment: Research Tools and Approaches

Joseph Lo Bianco

7. Professional Opportunities for Heritage Language Speakers

María Carreira

8. Research on Heritage Language Issues

Nelleke Van Deusen-Scholl

Section II: Commonly Taught Languages


Ofelia García

9. Spanish in the United States

Kim Potowski

10. French Heritage Language Communities in the United States

Jane F. Ross and Fabrice Jaumont

11. German as a Heritage Language in the United States

Renate Ludanyi

12. Italian and Italians in the United States

Anna De Fina

13. Portuguese Heritage Bilingualism in the United States

Jason Rothman and Tiffany Judy

Section III: Critical and Less Commonly Taught Languages


Scott McGinnis

14. Arabic in the United States

Jeff Bale

15. Being “Critical:” Implications for Chinese Heritage Language Schools

Shuhan C. Wang

16. The Journey of Hindi in the United States

Surendra and Vijay Gambhir

17.Russian Heritage Language Learners: From Students’ Profiles to Project-Based Curriculum

Olga Kagan

Section IV: Native American Languages


Teresa L. McCarty

18. Navajo

Larisa Warhol and Jeston Morris

19. Pueblo Languages of the Southwest

Christine Sims

20. Oowaaha Myaamiaataweenki: Miami is Spoken Here

Daryl Baldwin

21. Hawaiian: A Native American Language Official for a State

William H. Wilson

22. Warm Springs Languages

Valerie Switzler and Erin Flynn Haynes

Section V: Languages with Strong Community Connections


Sarah J. Shin

23. Japanese in the United States

Kimi Kondo-Brown

24. Community Support for Korean as a Heritage Language in the United States

Jin Sook Lee

25. Yiddish: A Jewish Language in the Diaspora

Netta Avineri

26. American Sign Language as a Heritage Language

Sarah E. Compton

27. Khmer

Wayne E. Wright

28. Filipino in the United States: Heritage Language Perspectives

Joseph Axel

Section VI: Promotion of Heritage, Community, and Native American Languages


Wayne E. Wright

29. Digital Stories in Heritage Language Education: Empowering Heritage Language Learners Through a Pedagogy of Multiliteracies

Polina Vinogradova

30. Heritage Language Development and Identity Construction Throughout the Life Cycle

Agnes Weiyun He

31. Stakeholder Views of Community-based Heritage Language Programs: Chinese and Korean Cases

Na Liu and Byeong-Keun You

32. Program Models for Heritage Language Education

Sarah Catherine K. Moore

33. Assessment of Heritage Language Learners: Issues and Directions

Margaret E. Malone, Joy Kreeft Peyton, and Katie Kim

34. Preparing Teachers to Work With Heritage Language Learners

Ana María Schwartz Caballero

35. Funding for Heritage Language Programs

Sarah Catherine K. Moore


Heritage, Community, and Native American Language Education: Looking to the Future

Joy Kreeft Peyton and Donna Christian



About the Editors

Terrence G. Wiley is President, Center for Applied Linguistics, USA and Professor Emeritus, Arizona State University, USA.

Joy Kreeft Peyton is Senior Fellow, Center for Applied Linguistics, USA.

Donna Christian is Senior Fellow, Center for Applied Linguistics, USA.

Sarah Catherine K. Moore is Senior Research Associate, Center for Applied Linguistics, USA.

Na Liu is Senior Research Associate, Center for Applied Linguistics, USA.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
EDUCATION / Bilingual Education
FOREIGN LANGUAGE STUDY / English as a Second Language