Handbook of Molecular Gastronomy : Scientific Foundations, Educational Practices, and Culinary Applications book cover
1st Edition

Handbook of Molecular Gastronomy
Scientific Foundations, Educational Practices, and Culinary Applications

ISBN 9781466594784
Published June 9, 2021 by CRC Press
894 Pages 577 Color Illustrations

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Book Description

Handbook of Molecular Gastronomy: Scientific Foundations and Culinary Applications presents a unique overview of molecular gastronomy, the scientific discipline dedicated to the study of phenomena that occur during the preparation and consumption of dishes. It deals with the chemistry, biology and physics of food preparation, along with the physiology of food consumption. As such, it represents the first attempt at a comprehensive reference in molecular gastronomy, along with a practical guide, through selected examples, to molecular cuisine and the more recent applications named note by note cuisine. While several books already exist for a general audience, either addressing food science in general in a "light" way and/or dealing with modern cooking techniques and recipes, no book exists so far that encompasses the whole molecular gastronomy field, providing a strong interdisciplinary background in the physics, biology and chemistry of food and food preparation, along with good discussions on creativity and the art of cooking.


  • Gives A–Z coverage to the underlying science (physics, chemistry and biology) and technology, as well as all the key cooking issues (ingredients, tools and methods).

  • Encompasses the science and practice of molecular gastronomy in the most accessible and up-to-date reference available.

  • Contains a final section with unique recipes by famous chefs.

The book is organized in three parts. The first and main part is about the scientific discipline of molecular and physical gastronomy; it is organized as an encyclopedia, with entries in alphabetical order, gathering the contributions of more than 100 authors, all leading scientists in food sciences, providing a broad overview of the most recent research in molecular gastronomy. The second part addresses educational applications of molecular gastronomy, from primary schools to universities. The third part provides some innovative recipes by chefs from various parts of the world.

The authors have made a particular pedagogical effort in proposing several educational levels, from elementary introduction to deep scientific formalism, in order to satisfy the broadest possible audience (scientists and non-scientists). This new resource should be very useful to food scientists and chefs, as well as food and culinary science students and all lay people interested in gastronomy.

Table of Contents


Part I Scientific Foundations

Acids in Foods and Perception of Sourness

Christian Salles

Anthocyanins in Food

Véronique Cheynier

Alcoholic Beverages: Production, Trends, Innovations

Konstantin Bellut, Kieran M. Lynch and Elke K. Arendt

Ash in the Kitchen

Marta Ghebremedhin, Christine Schreiber, Bhagyashri Joshi, Andreas Rieger and Thomas A. Vilgis

Baking: Laminated Bakery Products

Roxane Detry, Christophe Blecker and Sabine Danthine

Baking: Chemical Leaveners

Linda A. Luck

Baking: Injera – the Multi- Eyed Flat Bread

Mahelet Girma, Sumaya M. Abdullahi and Benjamin L. Stottrup

Baking: Viennoiserie – Laminated Pastry Production

James A. Griffin

Baking: How Does Starch Gelatinization Influence Texture?

Anaïs Lavoisier

Baking: Sourdough Bread

Mark Traynor and Imran Ahmad

Barbecue: The Chemistry behind Cooking on a Barbecue

Florent Allais

Bioactivity and Its Measurement

Hervé This vo Kientza

Browning: The Glycation and Maillard Reactions – Major Non- Enzymatic Browning Reactions in Food

Frederic J. Tessier

Canning: Appert and Food Canning

Jean-​Christophe Augustin

Capillarity in Action

Hervé This vo Kientza

Champagne Tasting from a Scientific Perspective

Gérard Liger-​Belair, Clara Cilindre, Daniel Cordier, Guillaume Polidori, Fabien Beaumont and Thomas Séon

Chantillys: The Cousins of Whipped Cream

Hervé This vo Kientza

Cheese: Hot Culinary Uses of Cheese

Sébastien Roustel and John A. Hannon

Chocolate: Chocolates from around the World, Simple Physics, Complex Flavour

Bhagyashri L Joshi, Sarah Gindra and Thomas A. Vilgis

Chocolate: Oral Processing of Chocolate – Successive Interplay of Sensory and Physicochemical Parameters

Thomas A. Vilgis

Coffee Preparation – from Roasted Beans to Beverage

Laura Febvay and Hervé This vo Kientza

Colour: Natural Pigments in Foods and Their Technical Uses

Juan Valverde


Hervé This vo Kientza

Cooking: Culinary Precisions and Robustness of Recipes

Hervé This vo Kientza

Cryogenics in the Kitchen

Peter Barham

Dairy: Milk Gels – a Gastrophysics View

Judith Hege, Marta Ghebremedhin, Bhagyashri L. Joshi, Christine Schreiber, H.-​C. Gill and Thomas A. Vilgis

Dairy: Culinary Uses of Milk, Butter and Ice Cream

Alan L. Kelly and David S. Waldron

Dairy: Ginger Milk Curd

Martin Lersch


José M. Aguilera

Dispersed System Formalism

Hervé This vo Kientza

Distillation: The Behaviour of Volatile Compounds during Distillation of Hydro- Alcoholic Solutions and during Hydro- DistillationMartine Esteban-.DeclouxEggs: Let Us Have an Egg

Hervé This vo Kientza

Emulsions: Emulsified Systems in Food

Markus Ketomäki, Trivikram Nallamilli, Christi Schreiber and Thomas A. Vilgis

Emulsions and Foams: Ostwald Ripening and Disproportionation in Practice

Hervé This vo Kientza

Emulsions: Lecithin

Elzbieta Kozakiewicz and Daniel Cossuta

Emulsions: Emulsions and Surfactants in the Kitchen

Hervé This vo Kientza

Essential Oils

Eric Angelini and Laure Dziuba

Essential Oils: How to Safely Use Essential Oils

Eric Angelini and Laure Dziuba


Hervé This vo Kientza


Hervé This vo Kientza

Fats and Oils: Physicochemical Properties of Edible Oils and Fats

Sabine Danthine

Fats and Oils: From Fat Droplets in Plant Seeds to Novel Foods

Juan C. Zambrano, Behic Mert and Thomas A. Vilgis

Fats and Oils: Oxidation of Dietary Lipids

Luc Eveleigh

Fats and Oils: Extra Virgin Olive Oil in Cooking – Molecular Keys for Traditional and Modern Mediterranean Gastronomy

Raffaele Sacchi

Fermentation: Kimchi

Weon-​Sun Shin

Fermentation: Fermenting Flavours with Yeast

Angela M. Coral Medina and John P. Morrissey

Fermentation: A Short Scientific and Culinary Overview of Kefir

Christophe Lavelle and Jean-​Baptiste Boulé

Filtration Membranes for Food Processing and Fractionation

Marie-​Laure Lameloise

Food Matrices and Matrix Effect in the Kitchen

José M. Aguilera and Hervé This vo Kientza

Food Pairing: Is It Really about Science?

Hervé This vo Kientza and Christophe Lavelle

Freeze- Drying

Yrjö H. Roos

Foams: Pickering Edible Oil Foam – Toward New Food Products

Anne-​Laure Fameau


Franco Pedreschi

Gastrophysics: A New Scientific Approach to Eating

Charles Spence


Hervé This vo Kientza

Heat Transfer in Culinary Sciences

Denis Flick

Hydrocolloid Usages as Gelling and Emulsifying Agents for Culinary and Industrial Applications

Rachel Edwards-​Stuart and Reine Barbar

Imaging Foodstuffs and Products of Culinary Transformations

Mathias Porsmose Clausen, Morten Christensen and Ole G. Mouritsen

Meat: Meat Tenderness and the Impact of Cooking

Jean-​François Hocquette and Alain Kondjoyan

Meat: Heat Transfer in Meat

Douglas Baldwin

Meat: Reduction of Nitrate and Nitrite Salts in Meat Products – What Are the Consequences

and Possible Solutions?

Régine Talon and Sabine Leroy

Microwave Heating and Modern Cuisine

Alan L. Kelly and Hervé This vo Kientza

Mineral Ions and Cooking

Christian Salles

Osmosis in the Kitchen

Hervé This vo Kientza

Pasta: Durum Wheat Proteins – a Key Macronutrient for Pasta Qualities

Coline Martin, Marie-​Hélène Morel and Bernard Cuq

Pasteurization in the Kitchen

Gabriela Precup and Dan-​Cristian Vodnar

Plating: The Science of Plating

Charles Spence

Proteins and Proteases

Linda A. Luck and Alan L. Kelly

Puddings: The Secret of the Rice Pudding

Martin Lersch


Laura Febvay and Hervé This vo Kientza

Salt: When Should Salt Be Added to Meat Being Grilled?

Hervé This vo Kientza, Marie-​Paule Pardo and Rolande Ollitrault


Hervé This vo Kientza

Sauces: Hollandaise Sauce

Guro Helgesdotter Rognså

Sauces and Purées: The Underside of Applesauce

Cassandre Leverrier

Seaweeds: Phycogastronomy – the Culinary Science of Seaweeds

Ole G. Mouritsen

Size Reduction

José M. Aguilera

Smoked Foods

Jane K. Parker and Alice Pontin

Sous Vide Cooking

Douglas Baldwin


Linda A. Luck

Squid: Gastrophysics of Squid – from Gastronomy to Science and back again

Ole G. Mouritsen, Charlotte Vinther Schmidt, Peter Lionet Faxholm and Mathias Porsmose Clausen

Sugars: Soft Caramel and Sucre à la Crème – an Undergraduate Experiment about Sugar Crystallization

Irem Altan, Patrick Charbonneau and Justine de Valicourt

Sugars: Sugar (and Its Substitutes) in Pastries

Anne Cazor and Ramon Morató

Sugars: Erythritol– Sucrose Mixtures out of Equilibrium – Exciting Thermodynamics in the Mouth

Hannah M. Hartge, Birgitta I. Zielbauer and Thomas A. Vilgis

Sugars: Intramolecular Dehydration of Hexoses

Marie-Charlotte Belhomme, Stéphanie Castex and Arnaud Haudrechy

Taste and Sound

Bruno A. Mesz

Temporal Domination of Sensation: When Building Dishes, Let’s Take Temporality into Account

Pascal Schlich

Texture: The Physics of Mouthfeel – Spreadable Food and Inulin Particle Gels

Thomas A. Vilgis

Texture: How Texture Makes Flavour

Ole G. Mouritsen

Texture: Tsukemono – the Art and Science of Preparing Crunchy Vegetables

Ole G. Mouritsen

Thickeners: Cellulose and Its Derivatives

Rachel Edwards-​Stuart

3D Printing of Food

Megan M. Ross, Róisín M. Burke and Alan L. Kelly

Umami: The Molecular Science of Umami Synergy

Ole G. Mouritsen

Part II Educational Practices

The Right Words for Improving Communication in Food Science, Food Technology, and between Food Science and Technology and a Broader Audience

Hervé This vo Kientza

Experimental Flavour Workshops

Hervé This vo Kientza

Teaching Argumentation and Inquiry through Culinary Claims

Erik Fooladi

Cooking and Science Workshops: The "Soft of the World", Gelling Agents

Pere Castells

Culinary Sciences for the Enhancement of the Public Understanding of Science

Ole G. Mouritsen

"Science and Cooking Activities" for Secondary School Students

Marie-​Claude Feore, Laure Fort, Marie-​Blanche Mauhourat and Hervé This vo Kientza

How to Reduce Oil in French Fries: A Student Experiment

Hervé This vo Kientza

An Educational Satellite Project around the Scientific Elucidation of Culinary Precisions in Lebanon and in the Middle East

Reine Barbar, Jean-​Marie Malbec, Christophe Lavelle and Hervé This vo Kientza

Bon Appétit, Marie Curie! A Stanford University Introductory Science of Cooking Course

Markus W. Covert and Imanol Arrieta-​Ibarra

Molecular Gastronomy in Science Education and Science Communication at the National University of Singapore

Linda Sellou and Lau Shi Yun

Molecular Gastronomy: A Universal Portal to the Molecular Sciences

Patricia B. O’Hara

Heat Transfer in the Kitchen – Exercises

Manuel Combes

Ionic Diffusion in Spherified Calcium Alginate Gels: A Laboratory Experiment

Lorenzo Soprani, Lara Querciagrossa, Silvia Cristofaro, Luca Muccioli, Silvia Orlandi, Elena Strocchi,

Alberto Arcioni and Roberto Berardi

Simple Calculations Based on Cooking

Hervé This vo Kientza

Teaching and Cooking with Culinary Teachers

Christophe Lavelle

The Monthly INRAE- AgroParisTech Seminars on Molecular Gastronomy

Hervé This vo Kientza

Part III Culinary Applications

New Greek Cuisine

Georgianna Hiliadaki and Nikos Roussos

3D Printed Note by Note Recipe: Soya Lobster Prototype

Róisín M. Burke

Cooking (with) Olive Oil

Christophe Lavelle

Cooking for the Elderly

Christophe Lavelle

Culinary Constructivism and Note by Note Cooking

Pierre Gagnaire


Hervé This vo Kientza

Note by Note Recipes for a Press Conference and Tasting Organized at ITHQ, 2012

Erik Ayala-​Bribiesca and Ismael Osorio

Using Liquid Nitrogen to Prepare Ice Creams in the Restaurant

Christophe Lavelle and Hervé This vo Kientza with chefs André Daguin, Noël Gutrin and Philippe Labbé

A Note by Note Traditional Chinese Dinner Created and Served in Singapore

Kelly Lee, Aaron Goh, Tony Choo, Nicolas Vergnole, Gn Ying Wei and Tais Berenstein

Greek Diracs

Makis Kalossakas and Nicolas Nikolakopoulos

An Eclipse Dish

Hervé This vo Kientza

Modern Swiss Cooking

Denis Martin

How Do Eggs Coagulate?

Hervé This vo Kientza

Vegetable Salad

Jean Chauvel


Hervé This vo Kientza

Waiter! There Is Garlic in My Meringue!

César Vega

Lobster and Juniper

David Toutain

Molecular Cooking

Róisín M. Burke and Pauline Danaher

Note by Note Cooking and Note by Note Cuisine

Hervé This vo Kientza and Róisín M. Burke


Sasa Hasic

The Raspberry Pear Viennoiserie

James A. Griffin

Molecular Mixology: Welcome Coffee, a Cocktail with Ten Layers

Hervé This vo Kientza and Pierre Gagnaire

Cube of "Chicken- Carrot" with Chips of "Basil- Lemon"

Pasquale Altomonte and Dao Nguyen

Some of the Easiest Note by Note Recipes Served at Senses Restaurant

Andrea Camastra

The Forest Floor

Sophie Dalton

A Note by Note Macaron

Julien Binz

Note by Note Cooking

Michael Pontif

Note by Note Sushis

Guillaume Siegler

Slowly Cooked Lamb Neck with Fermented Flour Pancakes, Sunchoke Puree and Beer Glaze

Alex Tsionitis

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Róisín Burke obtained her Ph.D. from University College Dublin and subsequently carried out postdoctoral research at the Agricultural University in Wageningen, The Netherlands. She is a Senior Lecturer in the Technological University, Dublin (TU Dublin), specialising in Culinary Science and Food Product Development. In the last fourteen years she has developed Molecular Gastronomy as a subject discipline in The School of Culinary Arts and Food Technology, TU Dublin. She supervised the first ever Ph.D. in Molecular Gastronomy in Ireland and is currently supervising a number of funded Ph.D. students. Róisín initiated and together with her TU Dublin colleagues developed a B.Sc. (Hons) in Culinary Science which was launched in 2016. She has published widely in international peer reviewed journals and has joined editorial teams. For many years, Róisín is lecturing to international students and is the TU Dublin co-ordinator of the Erasmus+ M.Sc. programme in Food Innovation and Product Design (FIPDes). She has given guest lectures in Ireland and abroad.

Alan L. Kelly is a professor in the School of Food and Nutritional Sciences at University College Cork in Ireland. His teaching interests include food processing and preservation, dairy product technology and new food product development, as well as regularly giving courses on effective scientific communication. He leads a research group interested in the chemistry and processing of milk and dairy products, has published over 250 research papers, review articles and book chapters, and has supervised over 40 MSc and PhD students to completion. He has been an editor of the International Dairy Journal since 2005 and has acted as an external examiner in universities and reviewed for journals and funding agencies around the world. In July 2009, he received the Danisco International Dairy Science award from the American Dairy Science Association for his contributions to research in dairy science and technology. In recent years, he has become very interested in the interface between the worlds of food and culinary sciences, and has organized several workshops and seminars on this topic and molecular gastronomy. In 2019, he published a book entitled Molecules, Microbes and Meals: The Surprising Science of Food (Oxford University Press), and in 2020 he published How Scientists Communicate: Dispatches from the Frontiers of Knowledge (Oxford University Press), both of which are aimed at a general audience.

Christophe Lavelle is a biophysicist at the CNRS (National Center for Scientific Research) in Paris, France, a principal investigator at the National Museum of Natural History in Paris, and co-head of the Nuclear Architecture and Dynamics research network. While his studies mostly concern epigenetics and the biophysical properties of cells, he also works on the relationship between science and gastronomy. He teaches biophysics molecular gastronomy in several universities. He teaches molecular gastronomy at the universities of Toulouse and Cergy-Pontoise. He is also the founder and president of the Science & Cooking Association and member of the International Chefs Association "Les Disciples d'Escoffier."Author of more than 30 scientific papers published in international journals and a book on medical physics, he is currently involved in several editorial projects related to food science.

Hervé This is a chemist at INRA (National Institute for Research in Agronomy) in Paris, France. He is also a professor at AgroParisTech and head of the Molecular Gastronomy Group, in the Laboratory of Chemistry of AgroParisTech also in Paris. He created the scientific discipline of Molecular Gastronomy in 1988 along with Nicholas Kurti (1908-1998). After his PhD on La gastronomie moléculaire et physique, he was invited by French Nobel Prize Jean-Marie Lehn to conduct his studies at the Laboratoire de Chimie des Interactions Moléculaires in the Collège de France. In 2006, while he was moving to AgroParisTech, the French Academy of Sciences asked him to create the Fondation Science & Culture Alimentaire, of which he was appointed scientific director. He writes regular columns and is the author of several books. Dr. This is also an honorary member of various culinary academies as well as the Académie dAgriculture de France. He has received many awards including the Franqui professorship (University of Liège) and the Grand Prix des Sciences de lAliment by the International Association of Gastronomy.