Handbook of Semiconductor Interconnection Technology: 2nd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Handbook of Semiconductor Interconnection Technology

2nd Edition

By Geraldine Cogin Shwartz

Edited by Geraldine C. Schwartz, Kris V. Srikrishnan

CRC Press

536 pages | 227 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2006-02-22
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Description

First introduced about a decade ago, the first edition of the Handbook of Semiconductor Interconnection Technology became widely popular for its thorough, integrated treatment of interconnect technologies and its forward-looking perspective. The field has grown tremendously in the interim and many of the "likely directions" outlined in the first edition are now standard in modern facilities. Reflecting those advances, this edition delves into the practical aspects of interconnections for manufacturing. It examines the interconnect and fabrication technologies now available, with an examination of future prospects for the field.

What's in this Edition:

  • Detailed discussion of electrochemical equipment for plating copper

  • Information on tools used for evaporation, chemical vapor deposition, and plasma processes

  • Emphasis on measurement of mechanical and thermal properties of insulators

  • Methods for characterizing porous dielectric thin films

  • Greater focus on integration issues and properties of titanium, cobalt, and nickel silicides

  • Process schemes based on the increased need for borderless contact gates and source/drain

  • Expanded discussion on choices for low-dielectric insulators

  • Concentration on electroplated copper, especially morphology of plated films and their properties

  • Developments in thin film liners and barriers

  • Expanded material on copper reliability

  • Table of Contents

    METHODS/PRINCIPLES OF DEPOSITION AND ETCHING OF THIN FILMS; Geraldine Cogin Schwartz

    Introduction

    Evaporation

    Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Photoenhanced CVD

    Plasma Processing

    Electrochemical Deposition

    Spin Coating

    Conclusion

    References

    CHARACTERIZATION; Geraldine Cogin Schwartz

    Introduction

    Optical Characterization of Dielectric Films

    Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy

    Resistivity of Metal Films

    Thickness

    Dielectric Constant of Dielectrics

    Breakdown Strength

    Adhesion

    Mechanical Properties

    Thermal Properties

    Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES)

    X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS): Also Called Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA)

    Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS)

    Electron Microprobe

    X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRFS)

    Hydrogen Analysis

    Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS)

    Specular X-Ray Reflectivity (SXR)

    Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS)

    Positronium Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS)

    Ellipsometric Porosimetry (EP)

    Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

    Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)

    Focused Ion Beam (FIB)

    Atomic Force Microscope (AFM)

    Thermal Wave-Modulated Optical Reflectance Imaging (TW)

    X-Ray Diffraction (XRD)

    Wet Chemical Methods

    Chromatography

    Other Analytical Techniques

    Thermometry

    Electrochemical Methods

    Plasma Diagnostics

    References

    SEMICONDUCTOR CONTACT TECHNOLOGY; David R. Campbell, Revised by Catherine Ivers

    Introduction

    Importance of Contact Technology

    Electrical Aspects of Silicon Contacts

    Material Aspects

    Ohmic Contacts

    Active Device Contacts

    Contact Studs for ULSI

    Conclusions

    References

    INTERLEVEL DIELECTRICS; Geraldine Cogin Schwartz and K.V. Srikrishnan

    Introduction

    Inorganic Dielectric Films

    Spin-On Glasses (SOGs)

    Low Dielectric Constant Films

    Barrier Dielectric Film: a-SiC:H

    Porous Dielectric Films

    Plasma-Assisted Etching of Organic Films

    Reactive Ion Etching of Low-e Interlevel Dielectric Films

    Conclusions

    References

    METALLIZATION; Geraldine Cogin Schwartz and K.V. Srikrishnan

    Introduction

    Aluminum

    Aluminum Alloys

    Copper

    Tungsten

    Patterning of Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys

    Patterning of Copper

    Patterning of Tungsten

    Structure of Metal Films

    Chapter Summary

    References

    CHIP INTEGRATION; Geraldine Cogin Schwartz and K.V. Srikrishnan

    Introduction

    Topography, Step Coverage, and Planarization

    Spin-On Films

    Step Coverage by Deposited Films

    In Situ Planarization/Gap-Fill of Dielectric Films

    Etch-Back Processes

    Step Coverage, Hole-Fill Planarization of Metals

    Evaporation

    Sputter Deposition of Metals

    Directional Sputtering

    High-Density Plasmas

    Beam Techniques

    Flowage of Metal Films

    CVD Metals

    Electrochemical Deposition of Copper

    Embedment (Inlaid) Processes

    Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP)

    CMP of Inorganic Dielectric Films

    CMP of Low-e Films

    CMP of Metals

    Post-CMP Cleaning

    Problems with CMP

    Impact of CMP

    Conclusions on Topography

    Remaining Issues for Chip Integration

    Process/Structure Choice Conflicts

    Processes

    Reliability

    Manufacturability

    Wafer Size

    Concluding Remarks on Compatibility of Materials and Processing

    References

    RELIABILITY; James R. Lloyd and Kenneth P. Rodbell

    Introduction

    Thin-Film Interconnect Reliability

    Behavior of Thin-Film Conductors in Stress Voiding and Electromigration Testing

    Electromigration Behavior of Via Chains

    Corrosion

    Insulator Reliability

    Concluding Remarks

    References

    INDEX

    Subject Categories

    BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
    TEC008000
    TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electronics / General
    TEC021000
    TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Material Science