Handbook of Superconductivity : Processing and Cryogenics, Volume Two book cover
2nd Edition

Handbook of Superconductivity
Processing and Cryogenics, Volume Two

ISBN 9781439817346
Published July 5, 2022 by CRC Press
624 Pages 481 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

This is the second of three volumes of the extensively revised and updated second edition of the Handbook of Superconductivity. The past twenty years have seen rapid progress in superconducting materials, which exhibit one of the most remarkable physical states of matter ever to be discovered. Superconductivity brings quantum mechanics to the scale of the everyday world where a single, coherent quantum state may extend over a distance of metres, or even kilometres, depending on the size of a coil or length of superconducting wire. Viable applications of superconductors rely fundamentally on an understanding of this intriguing phenomena and the availability of a range of materials with bespoke properties to meet practical needs. While the first volume covers the fundamentals of superconductivity and the various classes of superconducting materials, Volume 2 covers processing of the desired superconducting materials into desired forms: bulks, films, wires and junction-based devices. The volume closes with articles on the refrigeration methods needed to put the materials into the superconducting state.


Key Features:

  • Covers the depth and breadth of the field
  • Includes contributions from leading academics and industry professionals across the world
  • Provides hands-on guidance to the manufacturing and processing technologies

A comprehensive reference, the handbook is suitable for both graduate students and practitioners in experimental physics, materials science, and multiple engineering disciplines, including electronic and electrical, chemical, mechanical, metallurgy and others.

Table of Contents






PART E Processing

E1 Introduction to Processing Methods

Kazumasa Iida

E2 Introduction to Section E2: Bulk Materials

Kazumasa Iida

E2.1 Introduction to Bulk Firing Techniques

Mark O. Rikel and Frank N. Werfel

E2.2 (RE)BCO Melt Processing Techniques: Fundamentals of the Melt Process

Yunhua Shi and David A. Cardwell

E2.3 Melt Processing Techniques: Melt Processing for BSCCO

Jun-ichi Shimoyama

E2.4 Growth of Superconducting Single Crystals

Debra L. Kaiser and Lynn F. Schneemeyer

E2.5 Growth of A15 Type Single Crystals and Polycrystals and Their Physical Properties

René Flükiger

E2.6 Irradiation

Harald W. Weber

E2.7 Superconductors in Future Accelerators: Irradiation Problems

René Flükiger, Tiziana Spina, Francesco Cerutti, Amalia Ballarino, and Luca Bottura

E3 Introduction to Section E3: Processing of Wires and Tapes

Jianyi Jiang

E3.1 Processing of High Tc Conductors: The Compound Bi-2212

Jianyi Jiang and Eric E. Hellstrom

E3.2 Processing of High Tc Conductors: The Compound Bi,Pb(2223)

Kenichi Sato

E3.3 Highlights on Tl(1223)

Athena Safa Sefat

E3.4 Processing of High Tc Conductors: The Compound YBCO

Judith L. MacManus-Driscoll

E3.5 Processing of High Tc Conductors: The Compound Hg(1223)

Ayako Yamamoto

E3.6 Overview of High Field LTS Materials (Without Nb3Sn)

René Flükiger

E3.7 Processing of Low Tc Conductors: The Alloy Nb–Ti

Lance D. Cooley, Peter J. Lee, and David C. Larbalestier

E3.8 Processing of Low Tc Conductors: The Compound Nb3Sn

Ian Pong

E3.9 Processing of Low Tc Conductors: The Compound Nb3Al

Takao Takeuchi, Akihiro Kikuchi, Nobuya Banno, and Yasuo Iijima

E3.10 Processing of Low Tc Conductors: The Compounds PbMo6S8 and SnMo6S8

Bernd Seeber

E3.11 Processing of Low Tc Conductors: The Compound MgB2

Akiyasu Yamamoto and René Flükiger

E3.12 Processing Pnictide Superconductors

Jeremy D. Weiss and Eric E. Hellstrom

E4 Introduction to Section E4: Thick and Thin Films

François Weiss and Michael Lorenz

E4.1 Substrates and Functional Buffer Layers

Bernhard Holzapfel and Jörg Wiesmann

E4.2 Physical Vapor Thin-Film Deposition Techniques

Roger Wördenweber

E4.3 Chemical Deposition Processes for REBa2Cu3O7 Coated Conductors

François Weiss and Carmen Jimenez

E4.4 High Temperature Superconductor Films: Processing Techniques

Paul Seidel and Volker Tympel

E4.5 Processing and Manufacture of Josephson Junctions: Low-Tc

Sergey K. Tolpygo, Thomas Schurig, and Johannes Kohlmann

E4.6 Processing and Manufacture of Josephson Junctions: High-Tc

Aleksander I. Braginski and Brian H. Moeckly

E5 Introduction to Section E5: Superconductor Contacts

Kazumasa Iida

E5.1 Superconductor to Normal-Metal Contacts

Jack W. Ekin

E5.2 Resistive High Current Splices

Christian Scheuerlein

E5.3 Persistent Mode Joints

Susie Speller, Timothy Davies, and Chris Grovenor

PART F Refrigeration Methods

F1 Introduction to Part F: Refrigeration Methods

Ray Radebaugh

F1.1 Review of Refrigeration Methods

Ray Radebaugh

F1.2 Pulse Tube Cryocoolers

John M. Pfotenhauer and Xiaoqin Zhi

F1.3 Gifford–McMahon Cryocoolers

Mingyao Xu and Ralph Longsworth

F1.4 Microcooling

Marcel ter Brake and Haishan Cao

F1.5 Cooling with Liquid Helium

John M. Pfotenhauer



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Professor David Cardwell, FREng, is Professor of Superconducting Engineering and Pro-Vice-Chancellor responsible for Strategy and Planning at the University of Cambridge. He was Head of the Engineering Department between 2014 and 2018. Prof. Cardwell, who established the Bulk Superconductor research group at Cambridge in 1992, has a world-wide reputation on the processing and applications of bulk high temperature superconductors. He was a founder member of the European Society for Applied Superconductivity (ESAS) in 1998 and has served as a Board member and Treasurer of the Society for the past 12 years. He is an active board member of three international journals, including Superconductor Science and Technology, and has authored over 380 technical papers and patents in the field of bulk superconductivity since 1987. He has given invited presentations at over 70 international conferences and collaborates widely around the world with academic institutes and industry. Prof. Cardwell was elected to a Fellowship of the Royal Academy of Engineering in 2012 in recognition of his contribution to the development of superconducting materials for engineering applications. He is currently a Distinguished Visiting Professor at the University of Hong Kong. He was awarded a Sc.D. by the University of Cambridge in 2014 and an honorary D.Sc. by the University of Warwick in 2015.

Professor David Larbalestier is Krafft Professor of Superconducting Materials at Florida State University and Chief Materials Scientist at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. He was for many years Director of the Applied Superconductivity Center, first at the University of Wisconsin in Madison (1991-2006) before moving the Center to the NHMFL at Florida State University, stepping down as Director in 2018. He has been deeply interested in understanding superconducting materials that are or potentially useful as conductors and made major contributions to the understanding and betterment of Nb-Ti alloys, Nb3Sn, YBa2Cu3O7-, Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2Ox, (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox, MgB2 and the Fe-based compounds. Fabrication of high field test magnets has always been an interest, starting with the first high field filamentary Nb3Sn magnets while at Rutherford Laboratory and more recently the world’s highest field DC magnet (45.5 T using a 14.5 T REBCO insert inside a 31 T resistive magnet). These works are described in ~490 papers written in partnership with more than 70 PhD students and postdocs, as well as other collaborators. He was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 2003 and is a Fellow of the APS, IOP, IEEE, MRS and AAAS. He received his B.Sc. (1965) and Ph.D. (1970) degrees from Imperial College at the University of London and taught at the University of Wisconsin in Madison from 1976-2006.

Professor Alex Braginski is retired Director of a former Superconducting Electronics Institute at the Research Center Jülich (FZJ), retired Professor of Physics at the University of Wuppertal, both in Germany, and currently a guest researcher at FZJ. He received his doctoral and D.Sc. degrees in Poland, where in early 1950s he pioneered the development of ferrite technology and subsequently their industrial manufacturing, for which he received a Polish National Prize. He headed the Polfer Research Laboratory there until leaving Poland in 1966. At the Westinghouse R&D Center in Pittsburgh, PA, USA, he then in turn managed magnetics, superconducting materials and superconducting electronics groups until retiring in 1989. Personally contributed there to technology of thin-film Nb3Ge conductors and Josephson junctions (JJs), both A15 and high-Tc, also epitaxial. Invited by FZJ, he joined it and contributed to development of high-Tc JJs and RF SQUIDs. After retiring in 1989, was Vice President R&D at Cardiomag Imaging, Inc. in Schenectady, NY, USA, 2000-2002. Co-edited and co-authored The SQUID Handbook, 2004-2006, several book chapters, and authored or co-authored well over 200 journal publications and 17 patents. He founded and served as Editor of the IEEE CSC Superconductivity News Forum (SNF), 2007-2017. Is Fellow of IEEE and APS, and recipient of the IEEE CSC Award for Continuing and Significant Contributions in the Field of Applied Superconductivity, 2006.