Harmonics, Power Systems, and Smart Grids: 2nd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Harmonics, Power Systems, and Smart Grids

2nd Edition

By Francisco C. De La Rosa

CRC Press

278 pages | 19 Color Illus. | 164 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2015-04-20
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Description

Harmonics, Power Systems, and Smart Grids, Second Edition compiles the most relevant aspects of harmonics in a way that the unfamiliar reader can better grasp the subject matter and the experienced reader can directly access specific subjects of interest. The text begins with a definition of harmonics, along with analytical expressions for electrical parameters under nonsinusoidal situations, and then:

  • Discusses important and widely used industry standards to control harmonic distortion levels
  • Describes methods to mitigate the effects of harmonics, detailing the operation principles and design of passive filters and active filter fundamentals
  • Presents alternative methods, such as stiffer AC sources, power converters with increased number of pulses, series reactors, and load reconfiguration
  • Reviews the elements that play a role in the study of the propagation of harmonic currents in a distribution network
  • Explains how to determine power losses in electrical equipment attributed to harmonic waveform distortion
  • Covers harmonics from solar and wind power converters and power electronics in FACTS and HVDC technologies
  • Explores harmonics from electric vehicles connected to the grid, superconductive fault current limiters, and electric vehicle charging stations

Featuring three new chapters, a number of new examples and figures, and updates throughout, Harmonics, Power Systems, and Smart Grids, Second Edition provides a comprehensive reference on harmonic current generation, propagation, and control in electrical power networks, including the broadly cited smart grid.

Reviews

"… allows students and professionals in electrical engineering to have applicable knowledge of the harmonic phenomena in power systems including nonconventional sources of energy. … an excellent reference for those who work in areas such as power quality for its clear concepts and practical examples."

—Professor Horacio Torres-Sanchez, National University of Colombia, Bogotá

"This is a book that has advantage of "treating the matter of interest with clarity, in a way that the unfamiliar reader can better grasp and get up to date with the subject matter and that the experienced reader can directly get to specific subjects of interest". The sample chapters that I have received confirm that. Reference to real cases is made, which makes its impact even more effective."

—Carlo Alberto Nucci, University of Bologna

Table of Contents

Preface

Acknowledgments

About the Author

Fundamentals of Harmonic Distortion and Power Quality Indices in Electric Power Systems

Introduction

Basics of Harmonic Theory

Linear and Nonlinear Loads

Linear Loads

Nonlinear Loads

Fourier Series

Orthogonal Functions

Fourier Coefficients

Even Functions

Odd Functions

Effect of Waveform Symmetry

Examples of Calculation of Harmonics Using Fourier Series

Power Quality Indices under Harmonic Distortion

Total Harmonic Distortion

Total Demand Distortion

Telephone Influence Factor TIF

C Message Index

I * T and V * T Products

K Factor

Displacement, Distortion, and Total Power Factor

Voltage-Related Parameters

Power Quantities under Nonsinusoidal Situations

Instantaneous Voltage and Current

Instantaneous Power

rms Values

Active Power

Reactive Power

Apparent Power

Voltage in Balanced Three-Phase Systems

Voltage in Unbalanced Three-Phase Systems

References

Harmonic Sources

Introduction

The Signature of Harmonic Distortion

Traditional Harmonic Sources

Transformers

Rotating Machines

Power Converters

Fluorescent Lamps

Electric Furnaces

Future Sources of Harmonics

References

Standardization of Harmonic Levels

Introduction

Harmonic Distortion Limits

In Agreement with IEEE 519-1992

In Conformance with IEC Harmonic Distortion Limits

References

Effects of Harmonics on Distribution Systems

Introduction

Thermal Effects on Transformers

Neutral Conductor Overloading

Miscellaneous Effects on Capacitor Banks

Overstressing

Resonant Conditions

Unexpected Fuse Operation

Abnormal Operation of Electronic Relays

Lighting Devices

Telephone Interference

Thermal Effects on Rotating Machines

Pulsating Torques in Rotating Machines

Abnormal Operation of Solid-State Devices

Considerations for Cables and Equipment Operating in Harmonic Environments

Generators

Conductors

Energy Metering Equipment

References

Harmonic Measurements

Introduction

Relevant Harmonic Measurement Questions

Why Measure Waveform Distortion?

How to Carry Out Measurements

What Is Important to Measure?

Where Should Harmonic Measurements Be Conducted?

How Long Should Measurements Last?

Measurement Procedure

Equipment

Transducers

Relevant Aspects

References

Harmonic Filtering Techniques

Introduction

General Aspects in the Design of Passive Harmonic Filters

Single-Tuned Filters

Design Equations for the Single-Tuned Filter

Parallel Resonant Points

Quality Factor

Recommended Operation Values for Filter Components

Unbalance Detection

Filter Selection and Performance Assessment

Band-Pass Filters

Relevant Aspects to Consider in the Design of Passive Filters

Methodology for Design of Tuned Harmonic Filters

Select Capacitor Bank Needed to Improve the Power Factor from the Present Level Typically to around 0.9 to 0.95

Choose a Reactor that, in Series with a Capacitor, Tunes Filter to Desired Harmonic Frequency

Determine Whether Capacitor Operating Parameters Fall within IEEE 182 Maximum Recommended Limits

Test Out Resonant Conditions

Example 1: Adaptation of a Power Factor Capacitor Bank into a Fifth Harmonic Filter

Example 2: Digital Simulation of Single-Tuned Harmonic Filters

Example 3: High-Pass Filter at Generator Terminals Used to Control a Resonant Condition

Example 4: Comparison between Several Harmonic Mitigating Schemes Using University of Texas at Austin HASIP Program4

Active Filters

References

Other Methods to Decrease Harmonic Distortion Limits

Introduction

Network Topology Reconfiguration

Increase of Supply Mode Stiffness

Harmonic Cancellation through Use of Multipulse Converters

Series Reactors as Harmonic Attenuator Elements

Phase Balancing

Phase Voltage Unbalance

Effects of Unbalanced Phase Voltage

Reference

Harmonic Analyses

Introduction

Power Frequency vs. Harmonic Current Propagation

Harmonic Source Representation

Time-Frequency Characteristic of the Disturbance

Resonant Conditions

Burst-Type Harmonic Representation

Harmonic Propagation Facts

Flux of Harmonic Currents

Modeling Philosophy

Single-Phase vs. Three-Phase Modeling

Line and Cable Models

Transformer Model for Harmonic Analysis

Power Factor Correction Capacitors

Interrelation between AC System and Load Parameters

Particulars of Distribution Systems

Some Specifics of Industrial Installations

Analysis Methods

Simplified Calculations

Simulation with Commercial Software

Examples of Harmonic Analysis

Harmonic Current during Transformer Energization

Phase A to Ground Fault

References

Fundamentals of Power Losses in Harmonic Environments

Introduction

Meaning of Harmonic-Related Losses

Relevant Aspects of Losses in Power Apparatus and Distribution Systems

Harmonic Losses in Equipment

Resistive Elements

Transformers

Example of Determination of K Factor

Rotating Machines

References

The Smart Grid Concept

Introduction

Photovoltaic Power Generator

Harnessing the Wind

FACTS Technology Concept and Its Extended Adoption in Distribution Systems

High-Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) Transmission

References

Harmonics in the Present Smart Grid Setting

Introduction

Photovoltaic Power Converters

Main Operation Aspects

Harmonic Generation in Photovoltaic Converters

Typical Harmonics in Photovoltaic Converter

Conventional Wind Power Converters

Typical Harmonics in Wind Power Converters

Power Electronics Harmonics Inherent in FACTS Technology

Most Common Power Frequency Components in the FACTS Technology

HVDC Harmonics and Filtering

References

Harmonics from Latest Innovative Electric Grid Technologies

Introduction

Electric Vehicles Connected to the Grid

Superconducting Fault Current Limiters

Use of SCFCLs as a Means to Reduce Harmonic Sequence Currents during Faults, Leading to Wind Turbine Generator Transient Torque Reduction

Electric Vehicle Charging Stations

References

About the Author

Francisco C. De La Rosa holds a B.Sc and M.Sc from the Coahuila and Monterrey Technological Institutes, Mexico, and a Ph.D from Uppsala University, Sweden. A member of CIGRE and the IEEE Power Engineering Society, Dr. De La Rosa is currently a private power systems consultant. Previously, he was the lead of the Electric Power Systems Team at Mott MacDonald, Inc., The Woodlands, Texas, USA; an industry advisor in St. Louis, Missouri, USA; director of electrical engineering at Bruker Energy and Supercon Technologies and at Zenergy Power in California, USA; senior electrical engineer at EPS International; staff scientist at Distribution Control Systems (now Aclara Power Line Systems) in Missouri, USA; invited lecturer at the Nuevo Leon State University in Monterrey, Mexico; and research scientist at the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Mexico.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TEC008000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electronics / General
TEC031020
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Power Resources / Electrical