2nd Edition

Heat Exchanger Design Handbook

By Kuppan Thulukkanam Copyright 2013
    1272 Pages 709 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    1272 Pages 709 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Completely revised and updated to reflect current advances in heat exchanger technology, Heat Exchanger Design Handbook, Second Edition includes enhanced figures and thermal effectiveness charts, tables, new chapter, and additional topics––all while keeping the qualities that made the first edition a centerpiece of information for practicing engineers, research, engineers, academicians, designers, and manufacturers involved in heat exchange between two or more fluids.

    See What’s New in the Second Edition:

    • Updated information on pressure vessel codes, manufacturer’s association standards
    •  A new chapter on heat exchanger installation, operation, and maintenance practices
    • Classification chapter now includes coverage of scrapped surface-, graphite-, coil wound-, microscale-, and printed circuit heat exchangers
    • Thorough revision of fabrication of shell and tube heat exchangers, heat transfer augmentation methods, fouling control concepts and inclusion of recent advances in PHEs
    • New topics like EMbaffle®, Helixchanger®, and Twistedtube® heat exchanger, feedwater heater, steam surface condenser, rotary regenerators for HVAC applications, CAB brazing and cupro-braze radiators

    Without proper heat exchanger design, efficiency of cooling/heating system of plants and machineries, industrial processes and energy system can be compromised, and energy wasted. This thoroughly revised handbook offers comprehensive coverage of single-phase heat exchangers—selection, thermal design, mechanical design, corrosion and fouling, FIV, material selection and their fabrication issues, fabrication of heat exchangers, operation, and maintenance of heat exchangers —all in one volume.

    Heat Exchangers: Introduction, Classification, and Selection


    Construction of Heat Exchangers

    Classification of Heat Exchangers

    Selection of Heat Exchangers

    Requirements of Heat Exchangers

    Heat Exchanger Thermohydraulic Fundamentals

    Heat Exchanger Thermal Circuit and Overall Conductance Equation

    Heat Exchanger Heat Transfer Analysis Methods

    Thermal Effectiveness Charts

    Symmetry Property and Flow Reversibility and Relation between the Thermal Effectiveness of Overall Parallel and Counterflow Heat Exchanger Geometries

    Temperature Approach Meet, and Temperature Cross

    Thermal Relation Formulas for Various Flow Arrangements and Pass Arrangements

    Heat Exchanger Thermal Design

    Fundamentals of Heat Exchanger Design Methodology

    Design Procedure

    Heat Exchanger Design Problems

    Computer-Aided Thermal Design

    Pressure-Drop Analysis, Temperature-Dependent Fluid Properties, Performance Failures, Flow Maldistribution, Fouling, and Corrosion

    Cooperative Research Programs on Heat Exchanger Design

    Uncertainties in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers

    Compact Heat Exchangers

    Classification and Construction Details of Tube-Fin Compact Heat Exchangers

    Plate-Fin Heat Exchangers

    Surface Geometrical Relations

    Factors Influencing Tube-Fin Heat Exchanger Performance

    Thermohydraulic Fundamentals of Finned Tube Heat Exchangers

    Correlations for j and f factors of Plate-Fin Heat Exchangers

    Fin Efficiency

    Rating of a Compact Exchanger

    Sizing of a Compact Heat Exchanger

    Effect of Longitudinal Heat Conduction on Thermal Effectiveness

    Air-Cooled Heat Exchanger

    Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Design

    Construction Details for Shell and Tube Exchangers


    Tube Arrangement


    Tubesheet and Its Connection with Shell and Channel

    Tube Bundle


    Pass Arrangement

    Fluid Properties and Allocation

    Classification of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

    TEMA System for Describing Heat Exchanger Types

    Differential Thermal Expansion

    TEMA Classification of Heat Exchangers Based on Service Condition

    Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Selection

    Shellside Clearances

    Tube-to-Baffle-Hole Clearance

    Shell-to-Baffle Clearance

    Shell-to-Bundle Clearance

    Bypass Lanes



    Heat Exchangers Used for Regeneration

    Rotary Regenerative Air Preheater

    Comparison of Recuperators and Regenerators

    Considerations in Establishing a Heat Recovery System

    Regenerator Construction Material

    Thermal Design: Hydraulic Fundamentals

    Thermal Design Theory

    Mechanical Design

    Industrial Regenerators and Heat Recovery Devices

    Rotary Heat Exchangers for Space Heating

    Plate Heat Exchangers and Spiral Plate Heat Exchangers

    Plate Heat Exchanger Construction: General

    Benefits Offered by Plate Heat Exchangers

    Comparison between a Plate Heat Exchanger and a Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

    Plate Heat Exchanger: Detailed Construction Features

    Brazed Plate Heat Exchanger

    Other Forms of Plate Heat Exchangers

    Thermohydraulic Fundamentals of Plate Heat Exchangers

    PHE Thermal Design Methods

    Corrosion of Plate Heat Exchangers


    Limitations of Plate Heat Exchangers

    Spiral Plate Heat Exchangers

    PLATECOIL® Prime Surface Plate Heat Exchangers

    Heat Transfer Augmentation


    Application of Augmented Surfaces

    Principle of Single-Phase Heat Transfer Enhancement

    Approaches and Techniques for Heat Transfer Enhancement

    Heat Transfer Mode

    Passive Techniques

    Active Techniques

    Friction Factor

    Pertinent Problems

    Phase Change

    Major Areas of Applications


    Effect of Fouling on the Thermohydraulic Performance of Heat Exchangers

    Costs of Heat Exchanger Fouling

    Fouling Curves/Modes of Fouling

    Stages of Fouling

    Fouling Model

    Parameters That Influence Fouling Resistances

    Mechanisms of Fouling

    Fouling Data

    How Fouling Is Dealt while Designing Heat Exchangers

    TEMA Fouling Resistance Values

    Fouling Monitoring

    Expert System

    Fouling Prevention and Control

    Cleaning of Heat Exchangers

    Foulant Control by Chemical Additives

    Control of Fouling from Suspended Solids

    Cooling-Water Management for Reduced Fouling

    Flow-Induced Vibration of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

    Principles of Flow-Induced Vibration

    Discussion of Flow-Induced Vibration Mechanisms

    Turbulence-Induced Excitation Mechanism

    Fluid Elastic Instability

    Acoustic Resonance

    Vibration Evaluation Procedure

    Design Guidelines for Vibration Prevention

    Baffle Damage and Collision Damage

    Empirical Checks for Vibration Severity

    Impact and Fretting Wear

    Determination of Hydrodynamic Mass, Natural Frequency, and Damping

    Mechanical Design of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

    Standards and Codes

    Basics of Mechanical Design

    Stress Analysis, Classes, and Categories of Stress

    Tubesheet Design

    Cylindrical Shell, End Closures, and Formed Heads under Internal Pressure

    Bolted Flanged Joint Design

    Expansion Joints

    Opening and Nozzles



    Basics of Corrosion

    Forms of Corrosion

    Corrosion of Weldments

    Corrosion Prevention and Control

    Corrosion Monitoring

    Cooling-Water Corrosion

    Material Selection for Hydrogen Sulfide Environments

    Material Selection and Fabrication

    Material Selection Principles

    Equipment Design Features

    Raw Material Forms Used in the Construction of Heat Exchangers

    Materials for Heat Exchanger Construction

    Plate Steels

    Pipes and Tubes

    Weldability Problems

    Hot Cracking

    Laboratory Tests to Determining Susceptibility to Cracking

    Service-Oriented Cracking

    Welding-Related Failures

    Selection of Cast Iron and Carbon Steels

    Low-Alloy Steels

    Quenched and Tempered Steels

    Chromium–Molybdenum Steels

    Stainless Steels

    Ferritic Stainless Steels

    Duplex Stainless Steels

    Superaustenitic Stainless Steels with Mo + N

    Aluminum Alloys: Metallurgy


    Nickel and Nickel-Base Alloys Metallurgy and Properties

    Titanium: Properties and Metallurgy



    Graphite, Glass, Teflon, and Ceramics





    Hexoloy® Silicon Carbide Heat Exchanger Tube


    Postweld Heat Treatment of Welded Joints in Steel Pressure Vessels and Heat Exchangers

    Quality Control and Quality Assurance, Inspection, and Nondestructive Testing

    Quality Control and Quality Assurance


    Welding Design

    Nondestructive Testing Methods

    Heat Exchanger Fabrication

    Introduction to Fabrication of the Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

    Details of Manufacturing Drawing

    Stages of Heat Exchanger Fabrication

    Forming of Heads and Closures


    Elements of Brazing

    Fundamentals of Brazing Process Control

    Brazing of Aluminum

    Brazing of Heat-Resistant Alloys and Stainless Steel

    Quality Control, Inspection, and NDT of Brazed Heat Exchangers

    Soldering of Heat Exchangers

    Corrosion of Brazed and Soldered Joints

    Evaluation of Design and Materials of Automotive Radiators

    CuproBraze Heat Exchanger

    Heat Exchanger Installation, Operation, and Maintenance





    Periodical inspection of Unit

    Indications of Fouling

    Deterioration of Heat Exchanger Performance

    NDT Methods to Inspect and Assess the Condition of Heat Exchanger and Pressure Vessel Components

    Residual Life Assessment of Heat Exchangers by NDT Techniques

    Pressure Vessel Failure

    Professional Service Providers for Heat Exchangers




    Thulukkanam Kuppan works for the Indian Railway Service of Mechanical Engineers, and is based in Chennai, India. He is author of the successful Heat Exchanger Design Handbook, First Edition published by Marcel-Dekker (now CRC Press) in 2000. Kuppan is a noted authority in the area of heat exchangers, pressure vessels, and railway technologies. He has years of practical experience through his work with the Indian Railways, and is well-known in industry and academia in South Asia.

    "One of the most important strengths I noticed after reading Chapter 1 was the detailed description about the different kinds of heat exchangers. This kind of description is ideal for students and industry professionals. ... Looking at the contents and title, the author has made efforts to cover all aspects of heat exchanger design related to concepts, materials, geometry, fabrication, quality control and maintenance. …. I found it extremely useful as a design reference guide for industry professionals or course text book for engineering students."
    ––Rajeev Madazhy, Engineering Manager, Taper-Lok, Sugar Land, Texas, USA

    "This book succinctly summarizes the essential information needed for thermal-hydraulic design/rating of heat exchangers. The author has done a most credible job of sifting through the vast body of work in the applied heat transfer literature to produce a lucid reference document."
    ––Dr. Kris Singh, Chief Technology Officer, Holtec International, Marlton, NJ