Hierarchical Micro/Nanostructured Materials : Fabrication, Properties, and Applications book cover
1st Edition

Hierarchical Micro/Nanostructured Materials
Fabrication, Properties, and Applications

ISBN 9781138074675
Published November 22, 2017 by CRC Press
432 Pages 311 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Hierarchical Micro/Nanostructured Materials: Fabrication, Properties, and Applications presents the latest fabrication, properties, and applications of hierarchical micro/nanostructured materials in two sections—powders and arrays.

After a general introduction to hierarchical micro/nanostructured materials, the first section begins with a detailed discussion of the methods of mass production for hierarchical micro/nanostructured powders, including structure-directed solvothermal routes, template-etching strategies, and electrospinning technologies. It then proceeds to address structurally enhanced adsorption and photocatalytic performances.

The second section describes strategies for the fabrication of hierarchical micro/nanostructured object arrays and their devices, such as modified colloidal lithographies-based solution and electrodeposition. It also examines the structure-dependent properties and performances of the micro/nanostructured arrays, including surface wettability, optical properties, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effects, and gas-sensing performances.

In its cutting-edge coverage, Hierarchical Micro/Nanostructured Materials: Fabrication, Properties, and Applications explores the use of hierarchical micro/nanostructured materials in environmental remediation and detection devices, commenting on future trends and applications in catalysis, integrated nanophotonics, optical devices, super-high density storage media, sensors, nanobiotechnology, SERS substrates, and more.

Table of Contents

Series Statement




General Introduction

Hierarchical Micro/Nanostructured Powders

Hierarchical Micro/Nanostructured Arrays


Section I: Hierarchical Micro/Nanostructured Powders

Solvothermal Routes


Novel Micro/Nanostructured ZnO

Micro/Nanostructured Porous ZnO Plates

Morphology and Structure

Influence of VEG/VDIW on Products

Formation of Nanoplates

Standing Porous Nanoplate-Built Hollow Spheres

Morphology and Structure

Morphological Evolution

Influence of Trisodium Citrate Dihydrate on Morphology

Formation of Porous Nanoplate-Built Honeycomb-Like ZnO Hollow Spheres

Nanoplate-Built Core/Shell-Structured ZnO Objects

Morphology and Structure

Morphology Evolution with Reaction Time

Influence Factors

Two-Step Sequential Growth Model

Micro/Nanostructured Porous Fe3O4 Nanofibers

Morphology and Structure

Influencing Factors

pH Value

Reaction Temperature

Content of PR in the Precursor Solution

Effect of C6H5O73-

Formation of Porous Oriented Magnetite Fibers

Formation of Ultrafine Fe3O4


PR-Directed/Magnetic Dipole-Induced Orientation Assembling

Existence and Removal of PR in the Fibers

Effects of Reaction Parameters

Tremella-Like Micro/Nanostructured Fe3S4/C Composites

Structure and Morphology

Influence of Glucose

Formation of Tremella-Like Fe3S4/C Composites

Brief Summary


Template-Etching Strategies


Micro/Nanostructured Porous Silicate Hollow Spheres

Copper Silicate Micro/Nanostructured Hollow Spheres

Structure and Morphology

Formation Mechanism

Magnesium Silicate Micro/Nanostructured Hollow Spheres

Structure and Morphology

Formation of Magnesium Silicate Hollow Spheres

Nickel Silicate and Silica-Nickel Composite Hollow Spheres

Nickel Silicate Hollow Spheres

Silica Hollow Spheres

Silica-Nickel Composite Hollow Spheres

Hierarchical SiO2@γ-AlOOH Microspheres

Morphology and Structure

Formation of Hierarchical SiO2@γ-AlOOH Microspheres

Morphological Evolution with Reaction

Template-Induced Deposition Mechanism

Effect of Urea

Structure and Component Controllable Hollow Nanospheres: The Case of ZnO and Noble Metal Cluster-Embedded ZnO

Selective Etching Strategy for Hollow Nanospheres

Etching by Tartaric Acid

Etching by Weak Acids with Noble Metal Ions

Formation of ZnO Hollow Nanospheres

Noble Metal Doping in ZnO Nanoshells

Some Remarks on the Strategy

Brief Summary


Electrospinning and In Situ Conversion


Polyacrylonitrile/Ferrous Chloride Composite Porous Nanofibers

Morphology and Structure

Existence of FeCl2 within Fibers

Extension of the Electrospinning Strategy: In Situ Conversion

Polyacrylonitrile/FeOOH Composite Nanofibers

Polyacrylonitrile/Mg(OH)2 Composite Nanofibers

Hierarchically Micro/Nanostructured [email protected]γ-AlOOH Fibers

Electrospun Nanofiber-Templated Hydrothermal Route

Morphology and Structure

Influence Factors

Annealing Treatment

Effect of Reaction Duration

Effect of Hexamethylenetetramine Addition

Effect of Reaction Temperature

Formation of Micro/Nanostructured [email protected]γ-AlOOH Fibers

Electrospun Nanofiber-Based Ag Porous Nanotube Films

Ag-Coated Nanofiber Template-Plasma Etching Strategy

Morphology and Structure of Ag Porous Nanotube Films

Structural Tunability of Ag Porous Nanotube Films

Formation of Nanopores on Tube Walls

Brief Summary


Structurally Enhanced Photocatalysis Properties


ZnO-Based Micro/Nanoarchitectures

Nanoplate-Built Core-Shell-Structured ZnO Objects

Structural Dependence of Photocatalytic Activity

Durability of Photocatalytic Activity

Structure-Induced Enhancement of Photocatalytic Activity and Durability

Noble Metal Cluster-Embedded ZnO Composite Hollow Spheres

Photocatalytic Activity


Pt/ZnO Porous Shells

Ag Nanoparticle-Decorated Nanoporous ZnO Microrods

Photocatalytic Activity


Interface-Induced Enhancement of Photocatalytic Activity

Micro/Nanostructured α-Fe2O3 Porous Spheres

Photocatalytic Activity


Structurally Induced Photocatalytic Enhancement

Micro/Nanostructured Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3

Morphology and Structure

Photocatalytic Activity

Brief Summary


Structurally Enhanced Adsorption Performances for Environment


Micro/Nanostructured ZnO as Adsorbents

Adsorption of Cu(II) on Porous ZnO Nanoplates

Adsorption Measurements of Cu(II)

Structurally Enhanced Adsorption

Extension to Anion Adsorption

Standing Porous Nanoplate-Built ZnO Hollow Microspheres

Adsorptive Performance of Heavy Metal Ions

Structurally Enhanced Adsorption and its Electronegativity Dependence

Brief Remarks

Composite Porous Nanofibers for Removal of Cr(VI)

Cr-Removal Performance

High Cr-Removal Capacity

Influences of the pH Value and Fe(II) Content

PAN···Fe(II) Complexes-Induced Cr Adsorption

Hydrolyzation and Cr Adsorption

Initial pH Value and Fe Content Dependence

Micro/Nanostructured [email protected]γ-AlOOH Fibers

Adsorption Isotherms of Cr(VI) Ions

Regeneration and Reusability of the [email protected]γ-AlOOH Fibers

Structurally Enhanced and Protonation- Dependent Adsorption

Magnetic Micro/Nanostructured Materials as Adsorbents

Tremella-Like Fe3S4/C Magnetic Adsorbent

Adsorption Kinetics

Adsorption Isotherms

Regenerative Adsorption Performance

Enhanced Surface Carbon-Induced Adsorption and Desorption

Micro/Nanostructured Porous Fe3O4 Nanofibers as an Effective and Broad-Spectral Adsorbent

Highly Effective Removal of PCBs

Strong Adsorption of Heavy Metal Cations and Anions

Recycling Performance

Micro/Nanostructured Porous Metal Silicate Hollow Spheres as Efficient Adsorbents

Magnesium Silicate Micro/Nanostructured Hollow Spheres

Copper Silicate Micro/Nanostructured Hollow Spheres

Nickel Silicate Micro/Nanostructured Hollow Spheres

Brief Summary


Section II: Hierarchical Micro/Nanostructured Arrays

Micro/Nanostructured Block-Built Arrays


Zero-Dimensional Object-Built Arrays

Nanoparticle Array and Laser Morphological Manipulation

Morphology and Evolution

Laser-Induced Spheroidization

Nanoparticles on Microsized PS Sphere Arrays

Two Step-Replication to Prepare Zero-Dimensional Nanostructured Materials

One-Dimensional Nanoobject-Built Arrays

Self-Assembling 1D Nanostructures

1D Nanostructure by Pulsed Laser Deposition

1D Nanostructure by Magnetron Sputtering

Brief Summary


Micro/Nanostructured Ordered Porous Arrays


Micro/Nanostructured Ordered Pore Arrays Based on Solution-Dipping Strategy

Monolayer Ordered Pore Arrays

In Situ Solution-Dipping

Morphology and Structure

A Solvent Evaporation-Colloidal Sphere Deformation Model

Extensions of Solution-Dipping Strategy

Multilayer Ordered Pore Arrays

Direct Synthesis of Homopore Sized Porous Films on Any Surface

Multilayer Heteropore Sized Porous Films

Micro/Nanostructured Ordered Pore Arrays Based on Electrodeposition Strategy

Metal Micro/Nanostructured Ordered Through-Pore Arrays

Electrodeposition Strategy Based on PS Monolayer

Ordered Through-Pore Arrays

Molecule Adsorption and Interface- Weakening Model

Universality of the Strategy

Semiconductor Micro/Nanostructured Ordered Pore Arrays

Morphology and Structure

Oriented Substrate-Induced Oriented Growth

Other Materials

Hollow Sphere Array Films Based on Electrodeposition

Ni Hollow Sphere Arrays

Hierarchically Micro/Nanostructured Monolayer Hollow Sphere Arrays

Standing Ag Nanoplate-Built Hollow Microsphere Arrays

Micro/Nanostructured Ordered Pore Arrays Based on Other Routes

Micro/Nanostructured Porous Array Based on Electrophoretic Deposition


Fabrication of Colloidal Solutions by Laser Ablation in Liquids

Morphology and Structure

Influence of Current and Substrate

Formation of Hollow Spheres

Universality of Strategy

Noble Metal 3D Micro/Nanostructured Films Based on Electrophoretic Deposition

Au/ZnO Micro/Nanorod Arrays by Electrophoresis in the Au Colloidal Solution

Au Nanochain-Built 3D Netlike Porous Films by Electrophoretic Deposition

Micro/Nanostructured Hollow Sphere Arrays Based on Gas-Phase Surface Sol-Gel Process

Brief Summary


Surface Wettability and Self-Cleaning Properties


Tunable Wettability of Periodic ZnO Pore Array Films

Controllable Superhydrophobicity of In2O3 Ordered Pore Array Films

Irradiation-Induced Reversible Wettability of ZnO Pore Array Films

Superhydrophobicity of Silver Hierarchical Bowl-Like Arrays

Wettability of Silica Ordered Micro/Nanostructured Arrays

Micro/Nanostructured Ordered Pore Array

Ordered Nanopillar Arrays

Wettability of Hierarchical Micro/Nanocomposite Arrays

Zero-Dimensional Nanostructures on Microsized Polystyrene Spheres

One-Dimensional Nanostructures on Microsized Polystyrene Spheres

Superhydrophobic Surfaces on Curved Substrates

Superamphiphilicity of TiO2 Hierarchical Micro/ Nanorod Arrays without Ultraviolet Irradiation

Brief Summary and Remarks


Optical Properties and Devices


Controlled Optical Property of Gold Nanoparticle Arrays

Terahertz Absorption Bands in Au/Polystyrene Sphere Arrays

Tunable Surface Plasmon Resonance of Au Opening-Nanoshell Ordered Arrays

Arrays’ Structure and Tunable SPR

Dependence of SERS Effect on SPR

Photoluminescence Properties of Semiconductor Periodic Arrays

PL of Oriented ZnO Ordered Pore Arrays

PL of In2O3 Ordered Pore Arrays

Quasi-Photonic Crystal Properties of Monolayer Hollow Microsphere Array

Tunable Optical Transmission Stop Band

Equivalent Double-Layer Photonic Crystal Approximation

Optical Gas-Sensing Devices

Transmission Mode Wavemeter Devices Based on the Ordered Pore Arrays

Basic Equations

Optical Diffraction of the Ordered Pore Arrays

Resolution and Precision of Wavelength Measurement

Brief Summary


Gas-Sensing Devices and Structurally Enhanced Gas-Sensing Performances


Gas Sensors Based on Homopore-Sized Porous Films

Construction of Sensing Device

Structure-Dependent Gas-Sensing Performance

Gas-Sensing Devices Based on Heteropore-Sized Porous Films

Gas-Sensing Devices

Gas-Sensing Performance with Both High Sensitivity and Fast Response

Pore Size-Dependent Gas-Sensing Performance and Diagram of tR versus S

Structurally Induced Controllability of Gas-Sensing Performances

Extension of the Strategy


Selectivity of Porous Films

High-Performance Gas-Sensing Devices Based on the Porous Films/MEMS Chip

Construction Strategy of the High-Performance Sensing Devices

Integrated Gas Sensors

Morphology and Microstructure

Power Consumption and Heating Homogeneity

High Gas-Sensing Performances

Response Time and Sensitivity

Lower Limit of Detection

Dependence of Sensitivity on Working Temperature

Durability and Stability of the MEMS-Based Sensing Devices

Brief Summary and Remarks


Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Performances and Detection Applications


Au Hierarchically Micro/Nanostructured Particle Arrays

Ag-Nanoparticle-Built Hollow Microsphere (Nanoshell) Arrays

Tunability of the LSPR and SERS Properties

Structural Parameter-Dependent Coupling Effects

Standing Ag-Nanoplate-Built Hollow Microsphere Arrays

SERS Activity of Ag-Nanoplate-Built Hollow Microsphere Arrays

Estimation of Enhancement Factor

Structurally Enhanced Effect

Practicability of the Array

Reproducibility of Measurements

Reusability as an SERS Substrate

Application in Trace Detection of Cyanide

Surface Cleaning of Substrate

Effect of Excited Power

Measurement Consistency of Parallel Substrates

Effect of Immersion Time

Trace Detection of Kalium Cyanide

Brief Summary



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Weiping Cai earned a B.Sc and M.Sc in materials science from Northeast Normal University, Changchun, People’s Republic of China in 1982 and 1984, respectively. In 1997, he earned a Ph.D in materials science from Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China. Since 1997, he has been a professor at the Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei. His research interests include micro/nanostructured patterns and detection devices, as well as micro/nanomaterials for environmental applications.

Guotao Duan earned a Ph.D from the Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei in 2007, and has continued to work there. From April 2009 to March 2010, he stepped away to do postdoctoral work at the National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Japan. His current research interests focus on micro/nanofabrication, ordered micro/nanostructured arrays, and micro/nanodevices.

Yue Li earned a Ph.D in condensed matter physics from the Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Hefei in 2005. He later worked as a postdoctoral fellow and/or visiting scientist in the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, South Korea; National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Japan; and Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Potsdam, Germany. Since 2011, he has served as a professor at the Institute of Solid State Physics, CAS. His research interests include the fabrications, applications, and devices of micro/nanostructured arrays based on colloidal monolayer template techniques.


"This text provides up-to-date and comprehensive coverage of common fabrications, properties, and applications of micro- and nanostructured materials. … There is a logical and smooth flow from topic to topic. … I am not aware of any other [books] that are comparable in scope. … This is an excellent addition to the Advances in Materials Science and Engineering series. With recent and ongoing advances in nanostructured materials processing and applications, this is certainly a timely and necessary addition."
—Rod Handy, Ph.D, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, USA

"This book covers the breadth of hierarchical micro/nanostructured materials comprehensively from fabrication to practical applications. Various chemical fabrication techniques of hierarchical micro/nanostructured materials and their widespread possible applications such as catalysis, chemical/biological sensors, surface coating, and environmental remediation are presented with a focus on the authors’ leading-edge research results."
—Shinya Maenosono, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Nomi