History of Humanity: Volume VII: The Twentieth Century, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

History of Humanity: Volume VII

The Twentieth Century, 1st Edition

By Unesco

Routledge

600 pages

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Hardback: 9780415093118
pub: 2008-11-15
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Description

History of Humanity: The Twentieth Century sees the publication of the seventh and final volume in the monumental History of Humanity series, published in association with UNESCO.

With essays from an international team of specialist contributors, Volume VII explores cultural and scientific development during the twentieth century, covering such diverse aspects as religion, architecture and medicine, as well as looking in depth at the changes that took place within each region of the world.

History of Humanity: The Twentieth Century is an invaluable digest of the latest historical research for students across the disciplines. The volume includes special features such as maps and illustrations that complement the text, making it highly readable. Collected as a whole, the series provides the user with a comprehensive guide to the history of world cultures throughout historical times.

Table of Contents

A Introduction: The Twentieth Century in World History 3 Georges-Henri Dumont B Thematic section 1. The World at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century – Crisis within Imperialism 21 Charles S. Maier 2. Stabilization, Crisis and the Second World War 31

Charles S. Maier 3. The End of Empire and the Transformations of

the International System 45 Charles S. Maier 4. National Liberation Movements and

the Collapse of Colonialism 56 Nodari A. Simonia 5. Post-Colonial Problems – Former Colonial Powers and New States 63 Nodari A. Simonia 6. Responses to Post-Colonial problems 67 Nodari A. Simonia and Sophie Le Callennec 7. New Countries and World Politics 71 Iba Der Thiam, coordinator Introduction 71

Iba Der Thiam 7.1 Relations between Industrialized and Industrializing Countries 73

Nodari A. Simonia 7.2 Africa and the New International Economic Order 81 Edmond Kwam Kouassi Conclusion 87 Iba Der Thiam 8. Women 88 Françoise Thébaud 9. Youth 98 François Dubet 10. Older Generations 103 Tampalawela Dhammaratana

11. People with Disabilities 107 Seamus Hegarty 12. Traditional Science and Knowledge in East Africa 110 Judith Mbula Bahemuka and Wellington N. Ekaya

13. Modern Science and Changing Notions of Time,Space and Matter 116 Michel Paty, coordinator in collaboration with Michel Morange and Christian Houzel 14. Science as a System of Ideas – First Half of the Twentieth Century 153 Ludmila A. Markova

15. Science as the Activity of Acquiring Knowledge –Second Half of the Twentieth Century 160 Ludmila A. Markova 16. Medicine and Public Health 168 Jean-Charles Sournia 17. Technology and Applied Sciences 17.1 Knowledge and Practice 191

Eriabu Lugujjo 17.2 Agriculture 194 Eriabu Lugujjo 17.3 The Oceans – Resources and Mariculture 198 Eriabu Lugujjo 17.4 Electronics 206 Eriabu Lugujjo 17.5 Applied Astronomy and Interplanetary Space Exploration 211 Eriabu Lugujjo 17.6 Materials 219 Eriabu Lugujjo 17.7 Energy Sources and Applications 225 Eriabu Lugujjo 17.8 Culture and Communication – Traditional Modes and New Technologies 229 Judith Mbula Bahemuka 18. The Social Consequences of Scientific and Technological Knowledge and Practice 235 Dominique Ngoïe-Ngalla 19. The Disciplines of the Sciences of Society 241 Peter Wagner and Björn Wittrock, coordinators Introduction 241 Peter Wagner and Björn Wittrock 19.1 History 244 Rolf Torstendahl 19.2 Anthropology and Ethnology 254 Heidrun Friese 19.3 Archaeology 260 Andrew Colin Renfrew 19.4 Demographics 264Tian Xueyuan 19.5 Sociology 267 Peter Wagner 19.6 Economics 273 Claudio Sardoni 19.7 Legal Sciences 281 Nicola Lacey 19.8 Political Science 285 Björn Wittrock 19.9 Linguistics 291 Stephen A. Wurm 19.10 Geography 295 Paul Claval 20. Applied Social Science – Development and Consequences 299 Hellmut Wollmann 21. Philosophy 308 Ru Xin, coordinator in collaboration with Ye Xiushan, Teng Shouyao,Jiang Yi and Zhao Tingyang 22. Religious Traditions 320

Jean Lambert 23. Ethics 333 Peter Singer 24. Psychology 340 Hans Pols 25. Intellectual Culture 350 Anouar Abdel-Malek, coordinator Introduction 350 Anouar Abdel-Malek 25.1 High Cultures and Dominated Cultures 351 Gananath Obeyesekere

25.2 Social Conditioning and the Ideological Trend in the Historical-Cultural Process 355 Geoffrey Hawthorn 25.3 The Effects of Science and Technology on Intellectual Culture and Art 358 Oumar Dioume 25.4 Culture and Mass Production –Cultural Industries 362 Elizabeth K. Jackson and Alemseghed Kebede 25.5 Culture and Politics 366 Anne Legaré 25.6 Culture, the Arts and Society –Individual Freedom and Expression 370 Anisuzzaman 25.7 High Culture and Popular Culture 377 Theotônio dos Santos 25.8 Culture, National Cultures, Cross-Culturization, Acculturation and Inculturation 381 Henri Madelin 26. Literary and Artistic Culture 386 26.1 Literature 386 Marc Bensimon and Astrid Guillaume 26.2 Nationalism and Internationalism

in Modern Art 408 Caroline A. Jones and John Clark 27. Physical Culture and Sport 447 Clarisse Pereira-Palhinhas 28. Education 464 Lê Thành Khôi 29. Information and Communication 491 Rafael Roncagliolo, coordinator 29.1 A New International Information Order 491 José Antonio Mayobre 29.2 The Press and the Mass Media 496

Rafael Roncagliolo 29.3.1 The World’s Archives 502 Michel Duchein 29.3.2 Library Development 506 Pamela Spence Richards 29.3.3 The Development of the World’s

Museums 511 Sid Ahmed Baghli 29.4 The Information Revolution – Technology,

Methodology and Industry 515 Michel Cartier 29.5 The Development of International Languages 524 David Dalby 29.6 Human Mobility, Cultural Interaction and

Tourism 531 Miquel de Moragas and Carles Tudurí 29.7 The Individual and Information Technologies 541 Jörg Becker C Regional Section 30. Western Europe 553

Pascal Ory and Dominique Pestre 31. Eastern and Central Europe 575 Sergeï L. Tikhvinsky, coordinator Introduction 575 Sergeï L. Tikhvinsky 31.1 The Soviet Union and the Russian Federation 579 Sergeï L. Tikhvinsky and Yuri S. Borissov 31.2 East-Central and South-East Europe 591 Alexander S. Stykalin, Victor A. Khorev, František Svátek, L. Nagy, Nikolai Todorov, and A. Chojnowski 32. North America 601 Claude Fohlen 33. South and Central America and the Caribbean 630 Gregorio Weinberg, coordinator 33.1 South and Central America 630 Gregorio Weinberg, Luis Alberto Romero and Germán Carrera Damas 33.2 The Caribbean 653 Hilary McDonald Beckles 34. West Asia and the Arab World 661 Anouar Abdel-Malek, coordinator

Introduction 661 Anouar Abdel-Malek 34.1 Iran 663 Ali G. Dizboni 34.2 Turkey 666 Timour Muhidine 34.3 Afghanistan 668 Roland Gilles 34.4 Syria, Iraq and Lebanon 674

Mahmoud O. Haddad 34.5 Palestine and Jordan 678 Ali Mahafzah 34.6 The Gulf Cooperation Council – Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates,

Oman 682 Mariam Lootah 34.7 Egypt 685 Anouar Abdel-Malek 34.8 The Sudan 689

Saidou Kane 34.9 The Maghreb – Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Mauritania 692

Saidou Kane Conclusions and Orientations 695 Anouar Abdel-Malek 35. Sub-Saharan Africa 698 Iba Der Thiam, coordinator in collaboration with J. F. Ade-Ajayi, Lameck

K. H. Goma, Thierno Bah, Joseph-Roger de Benoist,Pierre Kipré, Elisée Coulibaly, Penda M’Bow,G. B. Ogunmola and Arlindo Gonçalo Chilundo 36. South and South-East Asia 720 Dhruv Raina and Syed Irfan Habib, coordinators Introduction 720 Dhruv Raina and Syed Irfan Habib 36.1 Western Thought, Education and Science in India 723

Aparna Basu 36.2 Scientific Practices in India before Independence 729 Kapil Raj 36.3 Colonialism, Nationalism and the Institutionalization of Science in India 733 Dhruv Raina and Syed Irfan Habib 36.4 The National Movement in India and the Foundations of Scientific and Industrial Research 738 Dhruv Raina and Syed Irfan Habib 36.5 The Evolution of Science and Technology in India since Independence 744 Vissid Siddhartha 36.6 The Development of National Scientific and Industrial Research 747

36.6.1 Science and Technology in Pakistan 747 Faheem Hussain 36.6.2 Science and Technology in Sri Lanka 753 Susantha Goonatilake 36.6.3 Science and Technology in

South-East Asia 757 Suzanne Moon Conclusion 763 Dhruv Raina and Syed Irfan Habib 37. East Asia 765 Tao Wenzhao, coordinator in collaboration with Yang Tianshi, Shigeru Nakayama, Gao Zengjie, Cheng Chongde, Yao Kecheng, Shen Yilin and Bahodor Iskandorovich Iskandarov 38. Oceania 786 Roy Macleod D Conclusion 39. Conclusion 797 An Interdependent World: Achieving Peace and Sustainable Development through International Cooperation Georges-Henri Dumont

in collaboration with Sergei L. Tikhvinsky,Gregorio Weinberg and Tao Wenzhao

Chronological Table 801 Index 849

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