Holography: Principles and Applications, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Holography

Principles and Applications, 1st Edition

By Raymond K. Kostuk

CRC Press

340 pages | 8 Color Illus. | 269 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9781439855836
pub: 2019-07-08
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Description

Holography: Principles and Applications provides a comprehensive overview of the theory, practical considerations, and applications of holography. The author has spent his career working on different aspects of this subject, and in this book, conveys the foundation for others to use holography and holographic concepts in a variety of important applications. Special emphasis is placed on the analysis of the imaging and diffraction efficiency properties of holographic optical elements that are finding increasing use in medical imaging, solar conversion systems, and augmented reality eyewear. A comprehensive overview of holographic materials is also given as this area is critical for implementing successful holographic designs. The important areas of digital and computer generated holography are also presented to give the reader an understanding of these topics. The author has attempted to explain each subject in a manner that he has found effective in teaching holography for over thirty years.

This book is suitable for researchers and as a textbook for graduate students in optics, physics, and engineering. As an aid to instructors and students, the book includes exercise problems and a set of laboratory experiments to enhance understanding. Methods for preparing and handling holographic materials is also provided to help individuals develop experimental capability in holography. In addition, over 450 current and foundational references are provided to help the researcher probe further into this interesting and useful subject.

Features

  • Offers a systematic, rigorous account of the principles, techniques, and applications of holography;
  • Describes the process of design, implementation, and evaluation of a variety of holographic optical elements;
  • Provides an extensive overview of holographic materials including preparation, handling, and processing techniques;
  • Includes exercise problems and laboratory experiments.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction and Brief History of Holography

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Historical Background

1.3 Philosophy and Content of the Book

References

Chapter 2: Background of Physical and Geometrical Optics for Holography

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Light as an Electromagnetic Wave

2.3 Polarization of an Optical Field

2.3.1 Linear Polarization

2.3.2 Circular Polarization

2.3.3 Elliptical Polarization

2.4 Coherence

2.4.1 Temporal Coherence

2.4.2 Spatial Coherence

2.5 Geometrical Optics

2.5.1 Ray Propagation

2.5.2 Reflection at Dielectric Interfaces

2.5.2.1 Fresnel Formulae

2.5.2.2 Brewster Angle

2.5.2.3 Total Internal Reflection (TIR)

2.5.3 Optical Lenses

2.5.4 Focusing Mirrors

2.5.5 Paraxial Rays and Basic Image Analysis Methods

2.5.5.1 Paraxial Approximation and Ray Trace Relations

2.5.5.2 Basic Image Analysis Methods

2.6 Diffraction Analysis

2.6.1 Huygens-Fresnel Formalism of Diffraction

2.6.2 Near Field Diffraction Condition

2.6.3 Far-Field Diffraction

2.6.4 Fourier Transform Properties of a Lens

2.6.5 Diffraction by Apertures

2.6.5.1 Rectangular Aperture

2.6.5.2 Circular Aperture

References

Problems

Chapter 3: Introduction to the Basic Concepts of Holography

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Holographic Recording Process

3.3 Scattering from a Periodic Array of Scattering Points and the Grating Equation

3.4 Hologram Terminology

3.4.1 Diffraction Efficiency

3.4.2 Linear, Computer Generated, and Digital Holography Recording

3.4.3 Thin and Thick (Volume) Holographic Gratings

3.4.4 Transmission and Reflection Type Holograms

3.5 Hologram Geometries

3.5.1 ‘In-Line’ (Gabor Type) Holograms

3.5.2 ‘Off-Axis’ Hologram

3.5.3 Fourier Transform Hologram

3.5.4 Fraunhofer Hologram

3.5.5 Hologram Geometry Diagram

3.6 Plane Wave Analysis of Holograms

3.6.1 Grating Vector

3.6.2 K-Vector Closure or Bragg Condition

3.6.3 Reflection Hologram Example

3.6.4 Bragg Circle Diagram

3.7 Dispersion of Thin Gratings

3.7.1Example of a Spectrometer with a Holographic Grating

References

Problems

Chapter 4: Holographic Image Formation

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Exact Ray Tracing

4.2.1 Exact Ray Tracing Algorithm

4.2.2 Primary and Secondary Image Formation

4.2.3 Forming a Real Image with a Conjugate Reconstruction Beam

4.3 Hologram Paraxial Imaging Relations

4.3.1 Analysis of the Phase Distribution from a Point Source to a Hologram Plane

4.3.2 Image Magnification Effects

4.3.3 Effects of Spectral Bandwidth on Hologram Image Resolution

4.4 Aberrations in Holographic Imaging

4.4.1 Spherical Aberration Coefficient

4.4.2 Coma Aberration Coefficient

4.4.3 Astigmatism and Field Curvature Aberration Coefficients

4.4.4 Distortion Aberration Coefficient

4.4.5 Example of a Holographic Lens Formed with Spherical Waves

4.5 Dispersion Compensation

4.6 Analyzing Holographic Lenses with Optical Design Tools

4.7 Hologram Formation with Non-Spherical Wavefronts

4.8 Holographic Lenses Recorded and Reconstructed at Different Wavelengths

4.9 Combining Image Analysis with Localized Diffraction Efficiency

References

Problems

Chapter 5: Hologram Diffraction Efficiency

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Fourier Analysis of Thin Sinusoidal Phase and Absorption Gratings

5.2.1 Diffraction by a Thin Sinusoidal Absorption Grating

5.2.2 Diffraction by a Thin Sinusoidal Phase Grating

5.3 Couple Wave Analysis

5.3.1 Approximate Coupled Wave Analysis (Kogelnik Model)

5.3.1.1 Assumptions and Background Conditions

5.3.1.2 The Bragg Condition

5.3.1.3 Dispersion Properties of a Volume Grating

5.3.1.4 Solving the Coupled Wave Equations

5.3.1.5 General Solution

5.3.1.6 Transmission Grating Field Amplitude

5.3.1.7 Reflection Grating Field Amplitude

5.3.1.8 Diffraction Efficiency

5.3.1.9 Properties of Specific Grating Types

5.3.1.9.1 Transmission Gratings

5.3.1.9.1.1 Transmission Phase Gratings

5.3.1.9.1.2 Transmission Phase Grating with Loss

5.3.1.9.1.3 Absorption Transmission Gratings

5.3.1.9.1.4 Mixed Phase and Absorption Transmission Gratings

5.3.1.9.2 Reflection Gratings

5.3.1.9.2.1 Reflection Phase Grating

5.3.1.9.2.2 Reflection Phase Grating with Loss

5.3.1.9.2.3 Reflection Absorption Grating

5.3.1.9.2.4 Mixed Reflection Gratings

5.3.1.10 Polarization Aspects of Volume Holograms Using ACWA

5.3.2 Criteria for Using ‘Thin’ and ‘Thick’ Grating Models

5.3.3 Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis

5.3.3.1 Properties of the Electric Field within the Grating

5.3.3.2 Fields Outside the Grating Region

5.3.3.3 Solving for the Amplitudes of the Diffraction Orders

5.3.4 Comparison of RCWA with ACWA and Special Grating Cases

References

Problems 

Chapter 6: Computer Generated Holograms

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Preliminary Considerations for the CGH Process

6.2.1 Basic Concept

6.2.2 Sampling Continuous Functions

6.2.3 Continuous and Discrete Fourier Transform Operations

6.2.4 Sampling Requirements at the Object and Hologram Planes

6.3 CGH Encoding Methods

6.3.1 Binary Detour Phase Encoding

6.3.2 Binary Interferogram Computer Generated Holograms

6.3.3 Example of a Binary Fourier Transform Hologram

6.4 Dammann Gratings

6.5 Dynamic CGHs Formed with a Spatial Light Modulator

6.6 CGH Design Algorithm Optimization Methods

References

Problems 

Chapter 7: Digital Holography

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Digital Hologram Process

7.3 DH Recording Considerations

7.4 Construction Geometries

7.5 Reconstruction Methods

7.5.1 Fresnel Approximation Method

7.5.2 Convolution Method

7.6 Digital Hologram Imaging Issues and Correction Techniques

7.6.1 Zero Order Suppression by Background Subtraction

7.6.2 Phase Shifting Recording and Correction

7.7 Applications of Digital Holography

7.7.1 DH Microscopy

7.7.2 Multiple Wavelength DH Microscopy

7.7.3 Short Coherence Length DH Microscopy

7.7.4 Digital Holographic Interferometry

References

Problems

Chapter 8: Holographic Recording Materials

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Emulsion Based Materials

8.2.1 Silver Halide Emulsions

8.2.1.1 Introduction

8.2.1.2 General Silver Halide Emulsion Properties

8.2.1.3 Developers and Bleaches for Silver Halide Emulsions

8.2.1.4 Silver Sensitized Holograms

8.2.1.5 General Comments on Handling and Processing Silver Halide Emulsions

8.2.2 Dichromated Gelatin

8.2.2.1 Introduction

8.2.2.2 Description of Gelatin Materials and Sensitizers

8.2.2.3 Mechanism for Hologram Formation in DCG

8.2.2.4 Preparation of DCG Emulsions

8.2.2.5 DCG Exposure and Development Parameters

8.3 Photorefractive Materials

8.4 Holographic Photopolymers

8.4.1 Introduction

8.4.2 General Photopolymer Composition

8.4.3 Commercially Available Holographic Polymer Characteristics and Physical Format

8.5 Dynamic Holographic Photopolymers

8.5.1 Photorefractive Holographic Photopolymers

8.5.2 Holographic Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals

8.6 Photoresist Materials

8.7 Photoconductor/Thermoplastic Materials

8.8 Embossed Holograms

8.9 Photosensitized Glass

8.9.1 Sensitized Optical Fiber

8.9.2 Photo-Thermo-Refractive (PTR) Glass

References

Problems

Chapter 9: Holographic Displays

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Reflection Display Holograms

9.3 Transmission Display Holograms

9.3.1 Image Plane Holograms

9.3.2 Rainbow (Benton) Holograms

9.3.2.1 Two-Step Rainbow Hologram

9.3.2.2 Single Step Image Plane Rainbow Hologram

9.4 Composite Holographic Displays

9.4.1 Holographic Stereograms

9.4.2 Zebra Imaging Holographic Display

9.5 Updatable Holographic Displays

9.6 Holographic Combiner Displays

9.6.1 Head Up and Helmet Mounted Displays

9.6.2 Near Eye Augmented Reality Eyewear

References

Problems 

Chapter 10: Holographic Interferometry

10.1 Introduction and Basic Principles

10.2 Methods for Forming Holographic Interference Patterns

10.2.1 Double Exposure Holographic Interferometry

10.2.2 Real-Time Holographic Interferometry

10.3 Measuring Surface Displacement with Holographic Interferometry

10.4 Surface Contouring with Holographic Interferometry

10.4.1 Multiple Wavelength Surface Contouring

10.4.2 Contouring with Two Point Sources

10.5 Holographic Measurement of Refractive Index Variations

10.6 Phase Shifting Holographic Interferometry

10.7 Analysis of Holographic Interference Patterns

References

Problems

Chapter 11: Holographic Optical Elements and instrument Applications

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Holographic Lenses

11.3 Holographic Spectral Filters

11.4 Holographic Beam Splitters and Polarization Elements

11.5 Folded Holographic Optical Elements

11.6 Volume Holographic Imaging

11.7 Holographic Optical Elements in Solar Energy Conversion Systems

11.7.1 Holographic Concentrators

11.7.2 Light Trapping Holographic Optical Elements

11.7.3 Holographic Spectrum Splitting Systems

11.7.4 Other Solar Applications of Holographic Optical Elements

11.8 Holographic Optical Elements in Optical Interconnects and Communications Systems

11.8.1 Optical Interconnects

11.8.2 Optical Communications

11.8.3 Optical Code Division Multiple Access Wavelength Holograms

References

Problems 

Chapter 12: Holographic Data Storage

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Holographic Data Storage System (HDSS) Configurations

12.3 Hologram Multiplexing Techniques

12.3.1 Angle Multiplexing

12.3.2 Wavelength Multiplexing

12.3.3 Shift Multiplexing

12.3.4 Peristrophic Multiplexing

12.3.5 Polytopic Multiplexing

12.4 Recording Material Considerations

12.4.1 Holographic Material Dynamic Range for Multiplexing

12.4.2 Hologram Exposure Scheduling

12.5 Object Beam Conditioning

12.6 Representative Holographic Data Storage Systems

References

Problems

Appendix A: Mathematical Relations

A.1 Spatial Fourier Transform Operations

A.2 Some Common Fourier Transform Pairs

References

 

Appendix B: Practical Considerations for Hologram Construction

B.1 Holographic Material Considerations

B.1.1 Change in Film Dimensions (Film Shrinkage, Swelling, or Shearing)

B.1.1.1 Effect of Axial Thickness Change in the Recording Material

B.1.1.2 Effect of Lateral Length Change in the Recording Material

B.1.1.3 Grating Period and Slant Angle Chirp

B.2 Effect of Average Refractive Index and Modulated Refractive Index Change

B.3 Relation of Hologram Exposure and Visibility to Diffraction Efficiency

B.4 Effects if Polarization and Beam Ratio on Hologram Recording

B.5 Noise Gratings

B.6 Effect of Finite Recording Material Dynamic Range on Multiplexed Holograms

References

 

Appendix C: Laser Operation and Properties Useful for Holography

C.1 Basic Laser Operation

C.2 Conditions for Lasing

C.3 Temporal Coherence of a Multimode Laser

C.4 Spatial Modes and Gaussian Beam Properties

C.5 Lasers Commonly Used for Holography

C.5.1 Gas Discharge Lasers

C.5.2 Ionized Gas Lasers

C.5.3 Diode Pumped Solid State (DPSS) Lasers

References

 

Appendix D: Holographic Material Processing Techniques

D.1 Silver Halide Emulsions

D.1.1 Silver Halide Hologram Developers

D.1.2 Silver Halide Hologram Fixer Solution

D.1.3 Silver Halide Hologram Bleaches

D.1.4 Silver Halide Sensitized Gelatin (SHSG) Hologram Processing

D.2 Dichromated Gelatin Emulsion Preparation and Processing

D.2.1 DCG Film Preparation and Exposure Guidelines

D.2.2 Basic DCG Development Process

D.3 Phenanthrene Quinone Doped Poly Methyl Methacrylate (pq-MMA)

References

Appendix E: Holography Lab Experiments

E.1 Lab 1: Transmission Holograms

E.2 Lab 2: Transmission Type Holographic Lenses

E.3 Lab 3: Reflection Type Display Holograms

E.4 Lab 4: Hologram Multiplexing

E.5 Lab 5: Digital Holography

About the Author

Raymond K. Kostuk, University of Arizona

About the Series

Series in Optics and Optoelectronics

Learn more…

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI055000
SCIENCE / Physics
TEC019000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Lasers & Photonics