How Life is Different  book cover
1st Edition

How Life is Different

ISBN 9780367771812
Published June 29, 2021 by CRC Press
210 Pages

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Book Description

The book examines basic principles of the structure and organization of living organisms and their differences from objects of inanimate nature. It covers how a single program-information structure permeates all evolutionary stages of life, including the cell, multicellular organisms and humans. The author explains how this structure is arranged and how it functions, as well as the role of the information system.


    • Reviews persistent questions and addresses fundamental themes in biology
    • Provides systematic coverage
    • Includes original insights into basic principles of living organization and structure
    • Demonstrates the applicability of a proposed approach to particular evolutionary grades


J.W. Schopf, Life in Deep Time: Darwin’s "Missing" Fossil Record (ISBN 978-1-138-38549-8)

C.H. Waddington, ed., The Origin of Life: Toward a Theoretical Biology (ISBN 978-0-202-36302-8)

J. Wiegel, A.W.W. Michael, eds., Thermophiles: The Keys to the Molecular Evolution and the Origin of Life (ISBN 978-0-7484-0747-7)

Table of Contents



What is the difference between chemical laboratories in cell and in volcano?

Stochastic process and predictable program

Informational organization of living

Program parts and components

Pool of basic "production" cell programs

Programs that produce makers

Provision and energy programs

Reproducing sites

Transport programs

The main objectives of cellular programs system (CPS) and the next its important programs

Control programs

Signal programs

General cellular program and its the most important component –mitosis

Cell cycle management

Other CPS programs

External programs of unicellular organisms

Full program system of unicellular organisms. Management principles

To evolution of unicellular

Program-information cell structure


Socialization is general principle of structuring species community

Transition from unicellular to multicellular

Aggregate organisms

Basic social principles of cellular integration into

single structure

Program scheme of multicellular organism (MO)

Social MO structure

MO tasks and program system that solve them

Internal and external programs

Main and auxiliary task programs

Structure of MO organs and systems

Examples of internal programs

Nutrition program

Breathing programs

Immune programs

Tasks and structure

Implementation examples

Some characteristics

Transport programs

Blood supply system - basic transport system of MO


Vessel structure and types


The main program features of blood supply system

Management programs

About humoral system

Nervous system (NS)

Neurons form NS signal chains

Signal transfer program

Returning neuron to its original state after signal transfer program

Program of signal transmission between neurons

Program to restore neuron activity

Features of neural chain links

Input sensor links

Signal processing programs run by interneurons and effector neurons

Effector neurons

About network structures formed by neurons

Memory of neural network

External program

About external nutrition program

Program space

Structure of external programs

Sensor, analytical and effector blocks of external programs

Work scheme and interaction of blocks

About possible principles of formation and inheritance of external programs

Program and information structures of multicellular


Leap forward in evolution – emergence of human volitional programs

Social structure of human communities. Personal and collective programs

Autonomous System of Volitional Programs (ASVP)

Human social paradigm. The relationship between personal and collective

Types of collective programs

Allocation of collective programs results. ASVP management. Synchronization of personal and collective programs

About information in volitional programs


Collection, formation, processing of information

Information transfer. Communication

On structure of volitional program makers

History of mankind as evolution of volitional programs

Scientific stage in evolution of volitional programs

Applied and fundamental science

About scientific methodology

On use of space and time concepts

On aspects of time concept in program-information approach

About stochasticity at inanimate

On combating stochastic degradation in program systems

About learning

About world picture

On structure and principles of volitional programming. Basic elements and operations

Language and volitional programming

Image and symbol

About hierarchy of personal information programs

On possible schematic scenarios of stimulation and manipulative programs

Inheritance and development of unicellular and multicellular information systems in volitional programs


Common program and information structure

The essence of cellular evolution

Cell and unicellular organisms


Program structure

Management of programs

Information network

Tasks and structure of information programs

Definition of information system

Complete system of unicellular programs

About cellular evolution

Multicellular organisms

Structure of multicellular organism

Tasks of MO programs

Management of MO programs.

Nervous system

Features of information system

Memorizing and learning

Improvement of external programs at the highest MO representatives


Brain evolution and hand motility –basis of Homo Programming appearance

Social nature of human communities. ASVP occurrence

Personal and collective volitional programs

Social allocation of ASVP resources

Management in ASVP

Coordination and synchronization of programs

Types of management regulatory programs

History as evolution of volitional programs

Role of science

Scientific method from the standpoint of the program approach

About world picture

On mechanism of volitional programming

About features of volitional information system

Evolution and program approach



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Vitaly Shubin is a physicist and leading researcher at the P. N. Lebedev Physics Institute Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow. He has authored or co-authored more than 120 papers and has several dozen patents. His physics research has focused on the "avalanche process" under negative feedback conditions in semiconductors and implementation of multicell solid-state photomultipliers combining single-photon sensitivity with analog mode of operation. The devices based on this technology are produced by many companies and widely distributed in various detection systems of biomed, nuclear physics and technology, environmental monitoring. For the last two decades, Dr Shubin has also studied molecular biology and biology of organisms to understand and isolate the main differences in the structure and organization of interaction between bodies and objects in living and non-living nature.