1st Edition

How Life is Different

By Vitaly Shubin Copyright 2021
    210 Pages
    by CRC Press

    210 Pages
    by CRC Press

    The book examines basic principles of the structure and organization of living organisms and their differences from objects of inanimate nature. It covers how a single program-information structure permeates all evolutionary stages of life, including the cell, multicellular organisms and humans. The author explains how this structure is arranged and how it functions, as well as the role of the information system.


      • Reviews persistent questions and addresses fundamental themes in biology
      • Provides systematic coverage
      • Includes original insights into basic principles of living organization and structure
      • Demonstrates the applicability of a proposed approach to particular evolutionary grades


    J.W. Schopf, Life in Deep Time: Darwin’s "Missing" Fossil Record (ISBN 978-1-138-38549-8)

    C.H. Waddington, ed., The Origin of Life: Toward a Theoretical Biology (ISBN 978-0-202-36302-8)

    J. Wiegel, A.W.W. Michael, eds., Thermophiles: The Keys to the Molecular Evolution and the Origin of Life (ISBN 978-0-7484-0747-7)



    What is the difference between chemical laboratories in cell and in volcano?

    Stochastic process and predictable program

    Informational organization of living

    Program parts and components

    Pool of basic "production" cell programs

    Programs that produce makers

    Provision and energy programs

    Reproducing sites

    Transport programs

    The main objectives of cellular programs system (CPS) and the next its important programs

    Control programs

    Signal programs

    General cellular program and its the most important component –mitosis

    Cell cycle management

    Other CPS programs

    External programs of unicellular organisms

    Full program system of unicellular organisms. Management principles

    To evolution of unicellular

    Program-information cell structure


    Socialization is general principle of structuring species community

    Transition from unicellular to multicellular

    Aggregate organisms

    Basic social principles of cellular integration into

    single structure

    Program scheme of multicellular organism (MO)

    Social MO structure

    MO tasks and program system that solve them

    Internal and external programs

    Main and auxiliary task programs

    Structure of MO organs and systems

    Examples of internal programs

    Nutrition program

    Breathing programs

    Immune programs

    Tasks and structure

    Implementation examples

    Some characteristics

    Transport programs

    Blood supply system - basic transport system of MO


    Vessel structure and types


    The main program features of blood supply system

    Management programs

    About humoral system

    Nervous system (NS)

    Neurons form NS signal chains

    Signal transfer program

    Returning neuron to its original state after signal transfer program

    Program of signal transmission between neurons

    Program to restore neuron activity

    Features of neural chain links

    Input sensor links

    Signal processing programs run by interneurons and effector neurons

    Effector neurons

    About network structures formed by neurons

    Memory of neural network

    External program

    About external nutrition program

    Program space

    Structure of external programs

    Sensor, analytical and effector blocks of external programs

    Work scheme and interaction of blocks

    About possible principles of formation and inheritance of external programs

    Program and information structures of multicellular


    Leap forward in evolution – emergence of human volitional programs

    Social structure of human communities. Personal and collective programs

    Autonomous System of Volitional Programs (ASVP)

    Human social paradigm. The relationship between personal and collective

    Types of collective programs

    Allocation of collective programs results. ASVP management. Synchronization of personal and collective programs

    About information in volitional programs


    Collection, formation, processing of information

    Information transfer. Communication

    On structure of volitional program makers

    History of mankind as evolution of volitional programs

    Scientific stage in evolution of volitional programs

    Applied and fundamental science

    About scientific methodology

    On use of space and time concepts

    On aspects of time concept in program-information approach

    About stochasticity at inanimate

    On combating stochastic degradation in program systems

    About learning

    About world picture

    On structure and principles of volitional programming. Basic elements and operations

    Language and volitional programming

    Image and symbol

    About hierarchy of personal information programs

    On possible schematic scenarios of stimulation and manipulative programs

    Inheritance and development of unicellular and multicellular information systems in volitional programs


    Common program and information structure

    The essence of cellular evolution

    Cell and unicellular organisms


    Program structure

    Management of programs

    Information network

    Tasks and structure of information programs

    Definition of information system

    Complete system of unicellular programs

    About cellular evolution

    Multicellular organisms

    Structure of multicellular organism

    Tasks of MO programs

    Management of MO programs.

    Nervous system

    Features of information system

    Memorizing and learning

    Improvement of external programs at the highest MO representatives


    Brain evolution and hand motility –basis of Homo Programming appearance

    Social nature of human communities. ASVP occurrence

    Personal and collective volitional programs

    Social allocation of ASVP resources

    Management in ASVP

    Coordination and synchronization of programs

    Types of management regulatory programs

    History as evolution of volitional programs

    Role of science

    Scientific method from the standpoint of the program approach

    About world picture

    On mechanism of volitional programming

    About features of volitional information system

    Evolution and program approach




    Vitaly Shubin is a physicist and leading researcher at the P. N. Lebedev Physics Institute Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow. He has authored or co-authored more than 120 papers and has several dozen patents. His physics research has focused on the "avalanche process" under negative feedback conditions in semiconductors and implementation of multicell solid-state photomultipliers combining single-photon sensitivity with analog mode of operation. The devices based on this technology are produced by many companies and widely distributed in various detection systems of biomed, nuclear physics and technology, environmental monitoring. For the last two decades, Dr Shubin has also studied molecular biology and biology of organisms to understand and isolate the main differences in the structure and organization of interaction between bodies and objects in living and non-living nature.