1st Edition

Human Enhancement Technologies and Healthcare Policy

By Jacek Klich Copyright 2025
    154 Pages 2 B/W Illustrations
    by Routledge

    Human enhancement (HE) is considered one of the most profoundly impactful effects of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. This book presents the definition, theory, scope, and main challenges of HE from a health policy and healthcare systems perspective. It offers a comprehensive view of the consequences of human enhancement disrupting the status quo in health service delivery and social coherence.

    The book examines the latest achievements of HE, focusing on four forms of enhancement: cognitive, physical, mood and moral. These forms are supported by the list of specific technologies and techniques used for HE. The book identifies the current trends in HE's development and analyses the challenges that HE poses to health policy and healthcare systems. It discusses the legal and financial aspects of HE, including regulation and shows that the financing of HE goes far beyond the scope of universal health coverage, thus opening the door for private, voluntary insurance and/or out-of-pocket payments. This, in turn, leads towards growing inequalities, which may threaten social cohesion. Readers will receive a structured picture of the latest advances in HE and trends in the field, as well as a list of the challenges and problems that HE generates.

    The book offers a concise picture of HE for students and researchers across the political sciences, public health, public sector management, and sociology. It will also find an audience among healthcare managers, policymakers, and those who are interested in social change.

    1. The Fourth Industrial Revolution and human enhancement 2. Human enhancement: Scope, forms and trends 3. Challenges of contemporary health care systems 4. Human enhancement challenges


    Jacek Klich is an sssociate professor of economics in the Department for the Management of Public Organisations, Cracow University of Economics, Cracow, Poland.