Human Thermal Environments : The Effects of Hot, Moderate, and Cold Environments on Human Health, Comfort, and Performance, Third Edition book cover
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Human Thermal Environments
The Effects of Hot, Moderate, and Cold Environments on Human Health, Comfort, and Performance, Third Edition




ISBN 9781466595996
Published April 9, 2014 by CRC Press
635 Pages - 149 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

In the ten years since the publication of the second edition of Human Thermal Environments: The Effects of Hot, Moderate, and Cold Environments on Human Health, Comfort, and Performance, Third Edition, the world has embraced electronic communications, making international collaboration almost instantaneous and global. However, there is still a need for a compilation of up-to-date information and best practices. Reflecting current changes in theory and applications, this third edition of a bestseller continues to be the standard text for the design of environments for humans to live and work safely, comfortably, and effectively, and for the design of materials that help people cope with their environments.

See What’s New in the Third Edition:

  • All existing chapters significantly updated
  • Five new chapters
  • Testing and development of clothing
  • Adaptive models
  • Thermal comfort for special populations
  • Thermal comfort for special environments
  • Extreme environments
  • Weather
  • Outdoor environments and climate change
  • Fun runs, cold snaps, and heat waves

The book covers hot, moderate, and cold environments, and defines them in terms of six basic parameters: air temperature, radiant temperature, humidity, air velocity, clothing worn, and the person’s activity. It focuses on the principles and practice of human response, which incorporates psychology, physiology, and environmental physics with applied ergonomics. The text then discusses water requirements, computer modeling, computer-aided design, and current standards. A systematic treatment of thermal environments and how they affect humans in real-world applications, the book links the health and engineering aspects of the built environment. It provides you with updated tools, techniques, and methods for the design of products and environments that achieve thermal comfort.

Table of Contents

Human Thermal Environments
Introduction
Basic Parameters
Heat Transfer for a Cylinder
Role of Heat Transfer Theory in the Assessment of Human Thermal Environments

The Human Heat Balance Equation and the Thermal Audit
The Heat Balance Equation for the Human Body
The Thermal Audit
Expert Estimation of the Thermal Audit
Assessment of Environments Using the Thermal Audit
Summary

Human Thermal Physiology and Thermoregulation
Introduction
Thermal Properties of the Human Body
Human Thermoregulation
Physiological Responses
Behavioural Thermoregulation
Body Temperature
Comfort as the Regulated Variable

Psychological Responses and Human Behaviour

Introduction
Psychological Models
Thermal Sensation
Thermoreception
Psychophysics
Semantics, Psychological Models and Multidimensional Scaling
Mood, Aggression, Depression and Other Psychological Reactions
Discussion

Measurement Methods and Assessment Techniques

Introduction
Measuring Kits and Composite Instruments
Measurement of Physiological Response
Measurement of Psychological Responses
Thermal Index: An Assessment Technique

Dehydration and Water Requirements
Introduction
Body Water
Dehydration Measures
Thirst
Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA)
Dehydration Limits
Practical Recommendations for Drinking
Drinking Too Much

Thermal Models

Introduction
Thermal Models
Empirical Models
Rational Thermal Models
Do Models Work?
Hybrid Models
Computer-Aided Design

Metabolic Heat Production

Introduction
Where Does the Heat Come from?
Estimation of Metabolic Heat Production
Collection and Analysis of Expired Air
The Doubly Labelled Water (DLW) Method
The Use of Tables and Databases
Empirical Models
Subjective Methods
Special Populations: Children, People with Physical Disabilities and People Wearing Protective Clothing and Equipment

The Thermal Properties of Clothing

Introduction
The Two-Parameter Model
More Complex Clothing Models and the Three-Parameter Model

Testing and Developing Clothing
Introduction
Determination of the Thermal Properties of Clothing
Performance Tests
Performance Trials
Clothing Specification and the Window of Application

Thermal Comfort
Introduction
Whole-Body Thermal Comfort
Thermal Models and Thermal Comfort

Thermal Comfort for Special Environments
Thermal Comfort in Special Environments
Personal Control Environments
Displacement Ventilation and Chilled Ceiling Environments
Thermal Comfort in Vehicles
Outdoor Thermal Comfort
Other Special Environments

Thermal Comfort for Special Populations

Introduction
Do Requirements for Comfort Apply Universally?
Effects of Acclimatisation State on Thermal Comfort Requirements
Other Factors
People with Disabilities
Babies, Children, the Sick and the Pregnant

Heat Stress

Introduction
Physiological Responses to Heat
Heat Stress Indices
Direct Heat Stress Indices
Acclimatisation
Working Practices for Hot Environments

Cold Stress

Introduction
Physiological Responses to Cold
Psychological Response to Cold
Cold Injury and Illness
Cold Stress Indices
Working Practices for Cold Environments
Case Study of Cold Work in a Hospital ‘Plating Area’

Thermal Environments and Human Performance
Introduction
Early Studies: Factory Output and Accidents
Performance in Moderate Environments
Performance in Cold
Performance Models and Indices
Summary Models
Environmental Design for Productivity

Human Skin Contact with Hot, Moderate and Cold Surfaces

Introduction
Skin Contact with a Hot Surface: Analysis of the Event
Mathematical Models of Heat Transfer
Surfaces of Moderate Temperature
Cold Surfaces

International Standards

Introduction
ISO Standards
Standards in the United States
Standards in China
Standards in the United Kingdom
European Standards (CEN)
Example of the Application of International ISO Standards to the Assessment of a Hot Environment
Example of the Application of International (ISO) Standards for the Assessment of Moderate Environments
Example of the Application of International (ISO) Standards for the Assessment of Cold Environments

Weather, Climate Change and Energy Use
Introduction
Meteorological Observations
Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI)
Future Development and Application of the UTCI
Climate Change
Human Thermal Environments and Energy Use

People in Extreme Heat and Cold, Hypobaric and Hyperbaric Environments, Water, Space and Extreme Sport

Introduction
People in Extreme Heat
People in Extreme Cold
People Under Pressure
People in Hyperbaric Environments
People in Water
Frozen Terrain, Snow, Rain, Wind and Floods
People in Space
Extreme Sport

Appendix 1

Appendix 2
Appendix 3
References
Index

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Reviews

"… a solid review of a very important topic … a key source of information for research students and others new to the field …"
—Tord Kjellstrom, Professor of Environmental and Occupational Health, Retired, Umea University, Sweden, Australian National University and University College London

"… the most comprehensive book available on the effects of human thermal environment on human responses and the methods for analyzing the environment, human, and clothing. … readable because of its logical structure and serviceable size."
—Hannu Rintamäki, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health

"… a tour de force … Professor Parsons carefully walks the reader through the fundamental principles, followed by the integration into models, to assessment strategies, and wraps it up with higher level discussion of complex exposures and emerging concerns. His commentary along the way is very informative."
—Thomas E. Bernard