Human Variation: Races, Types, and Ethnic Groups, 6th Edition (e-Book) book cover

Human Variation

Races, Types, and Ethnic Groups, 6th Edition

By Stephen Molnar


416 pages

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Basic text for the sophomore/junior level course in Human Variation or Human Diversity taught anthropology or biology departments.

This classic introduction to human variation, has been thoroughly updated to include the issues and controversies facing the contemporary study of diversity.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Biological Diversity and the Race Concept: An Introduction

Human Variation: Its Discovery and Classification

Anthropometry: The Measures of Human Variation


Racial Boundaries: Fact or Fiction?

Race, Geography, and Origins

Confusions and Contradictions of Human Classification

Human Biological Variability: A Perspectiive

Chapter 2 The Biological Basis for Human Variation

Principles of Inheritance

Formal Human Genetics

Factors of Variation and Evolution

The Gene, DNA, and the “Code of Life,”

Chromosomes at the Molecular Level

Gene Clusters and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLPs)

Y-Chromosome DNA Polymorphisms

Mitochondrial DNA

Genes and Populations: A Summary

Chapter 3 Traits of Simple Inheritance I: Blood Groups and Proteins

Blood Components and Inherited Traits

The Blood Groups

The Blood Groups: An Overview

White Blood Cell (WBC) Antigens

Polymorphisms of Serum Proteins

Inborn Errors of Metabolism

Other Polymorphisms of Anthropological Interest

Traits of Simple Inheritance: Some Conclusions

Chapter 4 Traits of Simple Inheritance II: Hemoglobin Variants and DNA Markers

Hemoglobins: Normal and Abnormal

Distribution of Hemoglobin S

Malaria and Natural Selection

Other Abnormal Hemoglobins

The Enzyme G6PD (Glucose 6 Phosphate Dehydrogenase)

Distribution of Red-Cell Variants in Sardinian Populations

Gene Frequency Changes and African Americans

DNA Markers of Human Variation

Genetic Markers at the DNA Level: Some Conclusions

Chapter 5 Traits of Complex Inheritance and Their Adaptations: I

The Structure and Function of Skin

Skin Color and Evolution

Craniofacial Traits

Eye Color and Hair Color

Human Form and Its Variability

Body Size and Form: Perspectives of Heredity

Chapter 6 Traits of Complex Inheritance and Their Adaptations: II

Characteristics of Growth and Development

Nutritional Influences

Adaptations to Cold or Hot Environments

High Altitude Environments: Stresses and Responses

Conclusions: Complex Traits and Their Adaptations

Chapter 7 Human Variability, Behavior, and Racism

Race, Nations, and Racism

Intelligence Quotient: A Measure of Mental Ability?

Behavior and Inheritance or Inheritance of Behavior

Class and Caste

Genetics, Intelligence, and the Future

Chapter 8 Distribution of Human Biodiversity

Some Factors Contributing to Gene Distribution

Races, Ethnic Groups, or Breeding Populations

Breeding Populations

Clinal Distribution of Traits

Breeding Populations versus Clines

Chapter 9 Perspectives of Health and Human Diversity: Influences of the Race


Epidemiiological Transition: The Distribution and Type of Disease

The Developing World and Epidemiological Transitions

A New World, but Old Diseases

What Is a Race?

Genes, Races, Environments, and Diseases: Some Conclusions

Chapter 10 Changing Dimensions of the Human Species

Population Size and Growth: Historical Perspectives

Factors of Population Change

Empowerment of Women

Fertility Differences and Population Composition

Demographic Balances

Regional Changes and World Populations

Races, Types, and Ethnic Groups: Where Are We?

About the Author

Stephen Molnar is Emeritus Professor of Anthropology at WashingtonUniversity.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SOCIAL SCIENCE / Anthropology / General
SOCIAL SCIENCE / Anthropology / Physical