1st Edition

Hydrodynamics, Sediment Transport and Light Extinction Off Cape Bolinao, Philippines





ISBN 9789054104087
Published December 31, 1996 by CRC Press
264 Pages

USD $130.00

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Book Description

Observational and numerical modelling studies of the hydrodynamics, sediment transport, and light extinction were undertaken in the marine environment around Cape Bolinao in the Lingayen Gulf (NW Philippines). This text reports on the results of these studies, and offers conclusions.

Table of Contents

Dedication -- Acknowledment -- Abstract -- Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION -- 1.1. Objectives and Relevance of the Study -- 1.1.1. General and Specific Objectives -- 1.1.2. Relevance and Scope -- 1.2. Approach of the Study -- 1.2.1. Observational Program -- 1.2.2. Modelling Approach -- Chapter 2. ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF CAPE BOLINAO AND SURROUNDING AREAS -- 2.1. Coastal Geomorphology and Aquatic Environment -- 2.1.1. Topography -- 2.1.2. Morphology -- 2.1.3. Sedimentology -- 2.1.4. Water Qualit -- 2.1.5. Freshwater Influence -- 2.2. Meteorology and Oceanograph -- 2.2.1. Meteorology -- 2.2.1.1. Monsoons and Sea Breeze Influence -- 2.2.1.2. Tropical Weather Disturbance -- 2.2.1.3. Air Temperature and Precipitatio -- 2.2.2. Oceanograph -- 2.2.2.1. Tides -- 22.2.2. Water Temperature and Salinity -- Chapter 3. MONITORING THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT OFF CAPE BOLINAO -- 3.1. Hydrodynamics and General Oceanography -- 3.1.1. Currents -- 3.1.1.1. Tidal Currents -- 3.1.1.2. Wind-Induced Currents -- 3.1.2. Tides and Water Level Variation -- 3.1.3. Temperature -- 3.1.4. Salinity -- 3.2. Meteorology -- 3.2.1. Wind Speed and Direction -- 3.2.2. Precipitation -- 3.3. Suspended and Bottom Sediment Characterization -- 3.3.1. TSS and AFDW Concentrations -- 3.3.2. Phytoplankton Concentration -- 3.3.3. Sedimentation Flux -- 3.3.4. Grain Size Distribution and Organic Content -- 3.3.5. Bottom Sediment Fractionation -- 3.3.6. Suspended Sediment Fluxes and Composition -- 3.4. Underwater Light Conditions -- 3.4.1. Downward Irradiance -- 3.4.2. The Vertical Attenuation Coefficient -- 3.4.3. Gilvin Absorption Coefficient -- 3.4.4. Specific Beam Attenuation Coefficients -- 3.4.4.1. Suspended Sediment Fractions -- 3.4.4.2. Water Samples -- 3.4.4.3. Diatoms -- Chapter 4. HYDRODYNAMICAL MODELLING OF FLOWS AND WAVES IN THE COASTAL ZONE -- 4.1. Theoretical Considerations -- 4.1.1. Tide-Induced Coastal Circulation -- 4.1.2. Wind-Driven Coastal Circulation -- 4.1.3. Surface Waves -- 4.2. Modelling Coastal Circulation -- 4.2.1. Finite Differentiation and Numerical Integration -- 4.3. Coarse Resolution Model - The Lingayen Gulf Case -- 4.3.1. Grid Layout and Bathymetric Smoothing -- 4.3.2. Open Boundary Conditions: The Pseudo-Implicit Orlanski Radiation Condition -- 4.3.3. External Tidal Forcing -- 4.4. Fine Resolution Model - The Cape Bolinao Case -- 4.4.1. Grid Layout -- 4.4.2. Treatment of Open Boundaries -- 4.4.2.1. Application of the Orlanski Radiation Condition -- 4.4.2.2. Tidal Forcing at Northern Open Boundary -- Chapter 5. SEDIMENT TRANSPORT IN THE COASTAL SEA -- 5.1. Modes of Sediment Transport -- 5.1.1. Bed-Load Transport -- 5.1.2. Suspended-Load Transport -- 5.2. Resuspension and Sedimentation -- 5.2.1. Resuspension by Waves and Current -- 5.2.1.1. Wave-Induced Resuspension -- 5.2.1.2. Flow-Induced Resuspensio -- 5.2.2. Sedimentation -- 5.3. Modelling Suspended Sediment Transport in the Coastal Sea -- 5.3.1. Third-Order Suspended Sediment Transport Mode -- 5.3.2. Description of Resuspension and Sedimentation Fluxes -- 5.3.3. Numerical Solution by Explicit Finite Difference Technique -- 5.3.4. Open Boundary Condition -- Chapter 6. LIGHT EXTINCTION IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT -- 6.1. Introduction -- 6.2. The Attenuation of Downward Irradiance in the Aquatic Medium -- 6.2.1. Absorption and Scattering of Downwelling PAR -- 6.2.2. The Vertical Attenuation Coefficient -- 6.3. Factors Affecting Light Extinction in the Marine Environment -- 6.3.1. Inanimate Suspended Solids -- 6.3.2. Phytoplankton -- 6.3.3. Gilvin -- 6.3.4. Water -- 6.4. Modelling Underwater Light Extinction Chapter 7. FIELD OBSERVATIONS AND LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS Ill 7.1. Hydrodynamics off Cape Bolinao -- 7.1.1. Currents -- 7.1.2. Tides and Water Level Variation -- 7.1.3. Temperature and Salinity -- 7.2. Sediment Transport in Cape Bolinao -- 7.2.1. Dynamics of Suspended Sediments -- 7.2.2. Sedimentation Fluxes -- 7.2.3. Size Distribution of Bottom Sediments -- 7.2.4. Organic Matter Distribution -- 7.3. Light Extinction in Cape Bolinao -- 7.3.1. Light Extinction Dynamics -- 7.3.2. Dependence of Light Extinction on Sediment Siz -- 7.3.2.1. Beam Attenuation of Sediment Fractions -- 7.3.2.2. Beam Attenuation Measurements of Suspensions -- 7.3.3. The Contribution of Phytoplankton to Light Extinction -- 7.3.4. Gilvin Absorptio -- 7.3.5. Estimated Specific Extinction Coefficients -- Chapter 8. SENSITIVITY ANALYSES, CALIBRATION AND VALIDATION OF THE NUMERICAL MODELS.. -- 8.1. The Hydrodynamical Model -- 8.1.1. Sensitivity to Advection of Momentum -- 8.1.2. The Effect of Momentum Diffusion -- 8.1.3. Wind-Driven Currents - Surface Stress Effect -- 8.1.4. Tide-Driven Circulatio -- 8.2. The Sediment Transport Model -- 8.2.1. The Resuspension Flux -- 8.2.1.1. Effect of the Resuspension Constant -- 8.2.1.2. Effect of the a-parameter -- 8.2.1.3. Effect of the Critical Shear Stress Tcr -- 8.2.1.4. Wave-Current Influence -- 8.2.2. The Sedimentation Flu -- 8.2.2.1. Effect of the Settling Velocity w, -- 8.3. The Light Extinction Model -- 8.3.1. The Specific Extinction Coefficients -- 8.4. Model Validation with Observed Dat -- 8.4.1. Current Velocities and Circulation Patterns -- 8.4.2. Suspended Sediment Dynamics and Distribution Pattern -- 8.4.3. Light Extinction -- Chapter 9. SIMULATIONS AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT IN CAPE BOLINAO AND THE LINGAYEN GUL -- 9.1. Impact of External Sediment Loads in Cape Bolinao -- 9.1.1. Impact on the Levels of TSS concentration -- 9.1.2. Impact on Light Extinction. -- 9.2. Impact Assessment in the Lingayen Gulf -- 9.2.1. The Hydrodynamics of the Lingayen Gulf -- 9.2.1.1. Wind-Driven Circulation -- 9.2.1.2. Tide-Driven Circulation -- 9.2.1.3. Wind and Tide-Driven Circulatio -- 9.2.2. Transport of a Conservative Tracer in the Lingayen Gulf -- Chapter 10. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS -- References -- Appendices -- Appendix 1 - Sediment Fractionation and Chlorophyll-a Determination -- Appendix 2 - Numerical Solution of the 3rd Order Transport Equation -- Appendix 3 - List of Symbols -- Curriculum Vitae -- Samenvatting.

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Author(s)

Biography

Paul C. Rivera was born in Isabela, Philippines on 29 November 1966. He finished his basic secondary education in a catholic school run by the La Salette priests in Cabatuan, Isabela. In 1988, he obtained his Bachelor of Science (Physics) degree in the same province and a year later, he moved to Manila to pursue graduate education. With a fellowship granted by the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAG AS A), he finished his Master of Science (Meteorology) degree at the University of the Philippines, Quezon City in 1990 specializing in the numerical modelling of storm surges. While doing graduate courses in the Department of Meteorology and Oceanography, he worked as a University Research Associate from 1989 to 1991. In 1992, he was granted a fellowship to pursue a higher education under the auspices of the Wageningen Agricultural University (WAU) and the International Institute for Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering (IHE) in the Netherlands. In the same year, he obtained his Master of Science (Environmental Science and Technology) degree from both institutions. There, he studied the rudiments of water quality management with emphasis on field observational and modelling studies of sediment resuspension, sedimentation and light attenuation in a freshwater lake in the Netherlands. In 1993 and under the sponsorship of the Cooperation in Environmental Ecotechnology with Developing Countries (CEEDC) Project initiated by IHE and WAU, he started his PhD research studies on the hydrodynamics, sediment transport and light extinction of the marine environment in Cape Bolinao, Philippines.