Liquid hydrogen is shown to be the ideal fuel for civil transport aircraft, as well as for many types of military aircraft. Hydrogen Aircraft Technology discusses the potential of hydrogen for subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic applications. Designs with sample configurations of aircraft for all three speed categories are presented, in addition to performance comparisons to equivalent designs for aircraft using conventional kerosine-type fuel and configurations for aircraft using liquid methane fuel. Other topics discussed include conceptual designs of the principal elements of fuel containment systems required for cryogenic fuels, operational elements (e.g., pumps, valves, pressure regulators, heat exchangers, lines and fittings), modifications for turbine engines to maximize the benefit of hydrogen, safety aspects compared to kerosine and methane fueled designs, equipment and facility designs for servicing hydrogen-fueled aircraft, production methods for liquid hydrogen, and the environmental advantages for using liquid hydrogen. The book also presents a plan for conducting the necessary development of technology and introducing hydrogen fuel into the worldwide civil air transport industry. Hydrogen Aircraft Technology will provide fascinating reading for anyone interested in aircraft and hydrogen fuel designs.
"…comprehensive and authoritative…required reading…"
-International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
HYDROGEN IN AERONAUTICS. BALLOONS. AIRSHIPS. NACA-LEWIS FLIGHT RESEARCH PROGRAM. THE CL-400 AIRPLANE PROJECT. EARLY TURBOJET ENGINE DEVELOPMENT. THE U.S. SPACE PROGRAM. EARLY HYPERSONIC AIRCRAFT STUDIES. THE POTENTIAL OF HYDROGEN AS FUEL FOR AIRCRAFT. EFFECT ON AIRCRAFT DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE. OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES. EARLY TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT STUDIES. EARLY STUDIES-SUPERSONIC TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT. Fuel System. Fuel Containment System. Engine Characteristics. Aircraft Characteristics. EARLY STUDIES-SUBSONIC TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT. Engine Characteristics. Aircraft Characteristics. Aircraft Performance. SUMMARY-EARLY STUDIES. SUBSONIC TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT. ENGINE DESIGN. Study Approach. Candidate Design Concepts. Engine Cycle Definition. Selected Engine Description. FUEL SYSTEMS AND COMPONENTS. Boost Pump. High Pressure Pump. Engine Fuel Delivery Lines. Engine Fuel Delivery System. Engine Operational Procedures. FUEL SUBSYSTEMS AND COMPONENTS. Fueling and Defueling. Tank Vent and Pressurization. Fuel Transfer. Auxiliary Power Fuel Supply. Fuel Jettison. FUEL CONTAINMENT SYSTEM. Tank Structure. Tank Insulation. Selection of Preferred FCS System. AIRCRAFT FINAL DESIGN. LH2 Aircraft Description. Weight Estimating Relationships. COMPARISON WITH OTHER FUELS. Fuel Properties. Synjet-Fueled Aircraft. Liquid Methane-Fueled Aircraft. Comparison of Aircraft. COST IMPROVEMENT POTENTIAL FOR HYDROGEN. Current Processes for Manufacturing Hydrogen. Advanced Processes Offering Cost Reduction. Boundary Layer Control by Cryogenic Wall Cooling. Effect of Fuel Cost on Direct Operating Cost. HYPERSONIC AIRCRAFT. Mach 12 Manned Hypersonic Vehicle. Configuration. Structural Design. Propulsion. MANNED HYPERSONIC TEST VEHICLE. SCRAMJET CRUISE VEHICLE. TWO-STAGE ORBITAL LAUNCH VEHICLE. SINGLE STAGE TO ORBIT VEHICLE. DUAL-FUEL HYPERSONIC VEHICLE. MACH 6 TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT. 1980's HYPERSONIC AIRCRAFT. Mach 5 Methane Vehicle. Mach 5 Hydrogen Vehicle. TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT REQUIRED FOR HYPERSONIC AIRCRAFT. Configuration Development. Propulsion Technology. Materials and Structural Concepts. Hydrogen Containment. Hydrogen Fuel System Components. MILITARY AIRCRAFT. HIGH ALTITUDE, LONG ENDURANCE (HALE) AIRCRAFT. Fuel Containment. Propulsion. Comparison With JP-Fueled Design. ANTI-SUBMARINE WARFARE (ASW) AIRCRAFT. TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT. Conventional Aircraft. Surface Effect Aircraft. SUMMARY. AIRPORT REQUIREMENTS. QUANTITY REQUIREMENTS. ECONOMICS OF LH2 TRANSPORT. LIQUEFACTION FACILITY. LIQUID HYDROGEN STORAGE. Underground Tanks. Vacuum-Insulated, Double Wall Tanks. Insulated Single Wall Tank. Tank Design Comparison. AIRCRAFT FUELING OPERATIONS. AIRPORT FUEL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM. LH2 Distribution System. LH2 Transfer Method. Vent Gas Disposition. Defueling/Refueling Operations. MAINTENANCE FACILITIES. SUMMARY OF AIRPORT REQUIREMENTS. SAFETY. FUEL PROPERTIES. CRASH FIRE HAZARD OF AIRCRAFT. Study Objectives. Previous Safety Experiments. Tank Vulnerability. Fuel Spreading Characteristics. Hazard From Fuel Fires. Human Exposure to Cryogenic Fuel. Additional Data Required. SUMMARY OF SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS. AIRCRAFT EMISSIONS. Air Pollution at Airports. Emissions During Cruise. NOISE. Subsonic Aircraft. Supersonic Aircraft. EMISSIONS DUE TO FUEL MANUFACTURE. Environmental Aspects of Hydrogen Production. Environmental Considerations of Synjet Manufacture. SUMMARY-ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS. IMPLEMENTING USE OF HYDROGEN AS FUEL FOR AIRCRAFT. TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT. Category A: Studies and Analyses. Category B: Aircraft and Engine Technology Development. Category C: Hydrogen Production and Ground Facilities Technology Development. FLIGHT DEMONSTRATION. IMPLEMENTATION. Initial Airline Usage. Development of Operational Usage. THE OUTLOOK FOR HYDROGEN: A SUMMARY. ADVANTAGES FOR HYDROGEN. RECOMMENDATION. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS CONCERNING USE OF HYDROGEN IN AIRCRAFT. Flight Experience in the Soviet Union. First Flight Solely on Hydrogen. U.S. National Aerospace Plane.