This text focuses particularly on the growing interest in hydrodynamic principles of the study of underground waters, new methods of eco-based hydrogeodynamic analysis, and the estimation of the quantity of infiltration water transfer. The author also discusses aspects of mass transfer by subsurface water flow in the light of molecular kinetics, and examines a new apporach to investigating the slow movements of groundwater at the deep zones of the hydrolithosphere.
Table of Contents
Preface to English Edition -- Preface (Abridged) to Russian Edition -- Introduction. Hydrogeodynamics-the Science of Groundwater -- Movement in the Earth's Crust -- Part I Hydrodynamic Principles of the Study of Groundwater Movement -- 1 Hydrogeological Bases for the Study of Groundwater Movement -- 1.1 Natural and Natural-technogenic Hydrogeological Systems (HGS). General Definitions -- 1.2 Characteristics and Categories of HGS -- 1.3 Concept of System Approach -- 1.4 Hydrogeodynamic Systems and Their Properties -- 1.5 Groundwater Flows and Their Hydrogeological Characteristics -- Exercises -- 2 Physical Principles of Study of Groundwater Movement -- 2.1 Properties of Water as a Liquid -- 2.2 Forces of Pressure and Viscosity -- 2.3 Acting Forces and Regimes of Movement in a True Liquid -- 2.4 Geometry and Properties of Pore /Fracture Interstitial Space -- 2.5 Kinds of Water, Molecular and Capillary Interactions in the System Rock = Groundwater -- 2.6 Stresses in Water-saturated Rocks and Geostatic Pressure -- 2.7 Concept of Continuous Geofiltration Medium Exercises -- 3 Hydrodynamic Principles of Groundwater Flow in the HOS -- 3.1 Phenomenological Prerequisites of the Law of Flow -- 3.2 Law of Flow and Its Generalised Expressions -- 3.3 Permeability of Rocks -- 3.4 Storage Capacity Properties of Rocks -- 3.5 Filtration and Storage Capacity Characteristics of Layers as HOS -- 3.6 Geofiltration Medium and Basic Equations Governing Its State -- Exercises -- 4 Hydrodynamic Properties of Flows -- 4.1 Types of Geofiltration Flows -- 4.2 Differential Representation of Flow Equations -- 4.3 Law of Refraction of Filtration Flows and Its Corollaries -- 4.4 Hydrodynamic Network, Its Characteristics -- 4.5 Hydrodynamic Structure of Flow -- 4.6 Hydrodynamic Analysis and Mapping of Hydrodynamic Structures of Flows -- 4.7 Types of Hydrodynamic Links between Surface and Subsurface Waters, Boundary and Original Conditions -- 4.8 Hydrodynamic Flow, Field of Filtration and Calculation Schemes -- Exercises -- 5 Principles of Schematisation of Hydrogeological Conditions -- 5.1 Concept of Hydrodynamic Calculation. Problems of Schematisation -- 5.2 Types of Flows and Their Hydrodynamic Properties -- 5.3 Principles of Schematisation and Their Basic Criteria. Sequence of Schematisation -- 5.4 Concept of Accuracy and Reliability of Calculation Scheme (Model) -- Exercises -- Part II Mathematical Bases for the Study of Groundwater Flow in HGSs -- 6 Differential Equations of Groundwater Movement in HGS -- 6.1 Major Prerequisites for Arriving at Differential Equations of Groundwater Movement in HGS -- 6.2 Arriving at Equation of Continuity of Flow -- 6.3 Arriving at Differential Equations of Steady Flow -- 6.4 Arriving at Differential Equations of Unsteady Elastic Flow -- 6.5 Arriving at Differential Equations of Unsteady Flow due to Overflow -- 6.6 Differential Equations of Unsteady Flow for Heterogeneous-Block Medium -- 6. 7 Arriving at Differential Equations of Unsteady Flow of Groundwaters (Unconfined Aquifer) -- 6.8 Concept of Mathematical Formulation of the Problem and Conditions for a Unique Solution to Differential Equations -- 6.9 Characteristics of Differential Equations -- 6.10 Brief Characterisation of the Principal Methods for Solving Differential Equations of Groundwater Flow -- 6.11 Concept of Direct and Inverse Problems -- Exercises -- 7 Numerical Methods of Solution of Differential Equations -- 7.1 Concept of Network Analysis -- 7.2 Arriving at Finite Difference Equations -- 7.3 Some Errors Occurring in Numerical Methods -- 7.4 Problems Solved by Numerical Methods -- 7.5 Explicit Solution of Finite Difference Equations -- 7.6 Implicit Solution of Finite Difference Equations by the Method of Trial Run -- 7.7 Modelling as a Method of Study of HOS -- Exercises -- 8 Hydrodynamic Principles of the Theory of Moisture Transfer in HGS -- 8.1 Statement of the Problems in Studying Moisture Transfer -- 8.2 Acting Forces and Parameters of Moisture Transfer -- 8.3 Governing Law of Moisture -- 8.4 Studies on Trend of Vertical Water Transfer /Exchange -- 8.5 Differential Equations of Moisture Transfer and Methods for Their Solution -- 8.6 Calculation Schemes of Processes of Recharge, Saturation and Drainage -- Exercises -- Part Ill Studies on Planoparallel, Planar and Planovertical Flow in HGS -- 9 Unidimensional Planoparallel Steady F!ow of Groundwater -- 9.1 Types of Calculation Schemes and Characteristics of Filtration -- 9.2 Groundwater Flows in Homogeneous Layers -- 9.3 Groundwater Flows in Heterogeneous Layers -- 9.4 Percolation (Infiltration) Groundwater Flows -- 9.5 Vertical Steady Groundwater Flows -- 9.6 Study of Hydrodynamics of Natural Groundwater Flows -- 9. 7 Evaluation of Hydrogeological Parameters and Infiltration Recharge According to Observations of the Steady Regime of Groundwater Flow -- Exercises -- 10 Unidimensional Transient Flow of Groundwater -- 10.1 Mathematical Setting and Main Types of Calculation Schemes -- 10.2 Unidimensional Flows without Infiltration Recharge -- 10.3 Percolation Groundwater Flows -- 10.4 Calculation of Complex Boundary Conditions -- 10.5 Study of Patterns of Unsteady Groundwater Flow -- 10.6 Study of Linear Groundwater Flow by Numerical Methods -- 10.7 Principles of Diagnostics of the Groundwater Regime -- 10.8 A United Model 'Zone of Aeration-Unconfined Aquifer -- Exercises -- 11 Study of Hydrodynamics of Groundwater Flows in Zone of Influence of Engineering Constructions -- 11.1 Concept of Hydrodynamics of Groundwater Flows in Zone of Influence of Engineering Constructions and Consequent Ecological Changes -- 11.2 Study of Patterns of Groundwater Flow in Zone of Influence of Reservoirs and Canals -- 11.3 Study of Head Pressure and Filtration Losses in Vicinity of Reservoirs and Large Canals -- 11.4 Study of Regime of Groundwater Filtration from Canals and Small Reservoirs -- 11.5 Peculiarities of Groundwater Flow in Vicinity of Dams -- 11.6 Movement of Groundwater Flow under Dams -- 11.7 Bypass Filtration -- 11.8 Study of Dynamics of Groundwater Flow during Strip Irrigation -- 11.9 Characteristics of Movement of Groundwater Flow in Areas of Irrigation. Concept of Hydrodynamic Calculation -- Exercises -- 12 Hydrodynamic Principles of Study of L':lroundwater Regime and Balance -- 12.1 Concept of Hydrodynamic Principles of Study of Regime and Balance of Groundwater Flows -- 12.2 Hydrodynamic Connection between the Regime and Balance of Groundwaters -- 12.3 Study of the Groundwater Regime and Balance by Numerical and Analytical Methods -- 12.4 Evaluation of Hydrogeological Parameters by Method of Analytical Functions -- 12.5 Calculation of Hydrogeological Parameters by Means of Finite Difference Equations -- 12.6 Calculation of Hydrogeological Parameters by Graphic-Analytical Method Based on Finite Difference Equations -- 12.7 Evaluation of Hydrogeological Parameters by Method of Numerical Integration -- Exercises -- Part IV Study of Radial, Planoradial and Planospatial Flows in HGS -- 13 Radial and Planoradial Flows to Wells Penetrating Confined and Unconfined Aquifers -- 13.1 Peculiarities of Flow and Mathematical Formulation of Problems -- 13.2 Application of Integral Transformation Method -- 13.3 Equations for Radial Steady Flow (Water Inflow towards a Single Well) -- 13.4 Deduction of Governing Equation for Radial Unsteady Flow -- 13.5 Quasi-steady Flow -- 13.6 Radius of Well Influence -- 13.7 Equations for Planoradial Flow (System of Interacting Wells) -- 13.8 Equations for Planoradial Flow for a Well or Well System Working in Layers with Straight Boundaries of the First and Second Order -- 13.9 Diagnostic Analysis of Hydrodynamic Patterns of Water Inflow towards Wells -- Exercises -- 14 Planovertical, Planospatial and Complex Cases of Groundwater Flow -- 14.1 Governing Calculation Schemes and Mathematical Models -- 14.2 Equations of Spherical Flow (Water Inflow towards Partially Penetrating Wells) -- 14.3 Equations of Planovertical Flow (Water Inflow towards Partially Penetrating Wells) -- 14.4 Method of Filtration Resistances -- 14.5 Construction of Calculation Functions for Partially Penetrating Wells According to the Method of Filtration Resistances -- 14.6 Planospatial Flow in Multilayer Systems -- 14.7 Method of Generalised Systems of Wells -- 14.8 Properties of Flows towards Wells in Anisotropic and Heterogeneous Layers -- 14.9 Estimation of Changes in Pumping Rate and Total Duration of Pumping -- Exercises -- 15 Theoretical Bases for Evaluation of Hydrogeological Parameters Through Pump Tests -- 15.1 Setting Up Inverse Problems -- 15.2 Principles of Diagnostics and Interpretation of Pump-Test Data and Experience in Exploitation -- 15.3 Analytical Methods of Evaluating Hydrogeological Parameters -- 15.4 Method of Standard Curves -- 15.5 Methods of Linear Anamorphosis -- 15.6 Reliability of Evaluation of Hydrogeological Parameters and Factors Complicating the Diagnostics of Experimental Curves -- Exercises -- 16 Hydrodynamic Calculations of Well Sites. Choice of Optimal Variant -- 16.1 Concept of Hydrodynamic Calculation of Well Sites -- 16.2 Setting Up the Problems for Study -- 16.3 Estimation of Influence of Water-supply Wells on Stream Flow -- 16.4 Concept of the Problem of Optimisation -- 16.5 Setting Up the Problem of Pumping Optimisation while Fixing Positions of Pumping Wells -- 16.6 Graphic Solution of Optimisation Problem -- 16.7 Solution of Optimisation Problem Using the Simplex Method -- Exercises -- Part V Principles of Theory of Mass and Heat Transfer in Hydrogeological Systems (HGS) -- 17 Hydrodynamic Principles of Mass and Heat Transfer in Aquifers -- 17.1 Concept of Mass and Heat Transfer and Hydrogeochemical Migration -- 17.2 Principal Mechanisms of Mass Transfer -- 17.3 Physicochemical Interactions -- 17.4 Principal Mechanisms of Heat Transfer -- 17.5 Grounds for Deduction of Differential Equations of Mass and Heat Transfer -- 17.6 Differential Equations for Migration of Matter in Aquifers -- 17.7 Differential Equations for Macrodispersions in Heterogeneous Rocks -- 17.8 Differential Equations for Microdispersions in Heat Flow -- Exercises -- 18 Hydrogeochemical Migration and Heat Transfer under Various Hydrogeological Conditions -- 18.1 Piston Drive of Groundwater of Uniform Density -- 18.2 Diffusion Transfer of Salts through Weakly Permeable Layers (lnterbeds) -- 18.3 Study of Convection-Dispersion Transfer in Homogeneous Unidimensional Flows -- 18.4 Principal Schemes of Mass Transfer in a Heterogeneous HGS -- 18.5 Macrodispersion in Heterogeneous Systems -- 18.6 Evaluation of Migration Parameters -- 18.7 Simplest Problems of Heat Transfer -- 18.8 Characteristics of Migration, Schematisation and Studies of Mass Transfer in HGSs -- Exercises -- 19 Some Problems of Hydrogeodynamics as Viewed from the Molecular-Kinetic Theory of Groundwater Movement -- 19.1 Mathematical Models of Groundwater Movement in Different Zones of the Hydrolithosphere -- 19.2 Migration of Chemical Components in Aquifers Viewed from the Molecular-Kinetic Theory of Aqueous Solutions -- 19.2.1 Molecular-Kinetic Model of Migration -- 19.2.2 Basic Parameters of the Molecular-Kinetic Model of Mass Transfer -- 19.2.3 Experimental Evaluation of Parameters of Migration Based on the Molecular-Kinetic Model -- 19.2.4 Mathematical Model of Migration of a Component with due Regard for its Concentration in the Displaced Solution -- 19.2.5 Mathematical Model of Migration of Components in Variable Concentrations in the Displacing Solution -- 19.3 Principles of Geohydrodynamics of Slow Flows -- 19.3.1 Concept of Slow Flow -- 19.3.2 Influence of Depth of Occurrence on Hydrodynamic Characteristics of the Aquifer -- 19.3.3 Physical Matter of the Initial Flow Gradient -- 19.3.4 Concept of "Failuation" -- 19.4 Peculiarities of Movement of Deep Groundwater in Terms of Non-linear Laminar Filtration and Failuation Theory -- 19.4.1 Direction and Velocity of Groundwater Flow -- 19.4.2 Formation of Hydraulic Head -- 19.4.3 Failuation and Mass Transfer of Substances -- 19.5 Inflow towards a Deep Single Well -- 19.6 Evaluation of Basic Calculation parameters of Failuation -- Exercises -- Conclusion -- Literature Cited -- Appendex.