The power sector has undergone a liberalization process both in industrialized and developing countries, involving market regimes, as well as ownership structure. These processes have called for new and innovative concepts, affecting both the operation of existing hydropower plants and transmission facilities, as well as the development and implementation of new projects. At the same time a sharper focus is being placed on environmental considerations. In this context it is important to emphasize the obvious benefits of hydropower as a clean, renewable and sustainable energy source. It is however also relevant to focus on the impact on the local environment during the planning and operation of hydropower plants. New knowledge and methods have been developed that make it possible to mitigate the local undesirable effects of such projects. Development and operation of modern power systems require sophisticated technology. Continuous research and development in this field is therefore crucial to maintaining hydropower as a competitive and environmentally well-accepted form of power generation.