Incidental Trainer: A Reference Guide for Training Design, Development, and Delivery, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Incidental Trainer

A Reference Guide for Training Design, Development, and Delivery, 1st Edition

By Margaret Wan

CRC Press

216 pages | 4 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2013-11-23
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"We have trained and trained. The employees still don’t get it!" Although a critical component in improving organizational performance, training is usually not conducted effectively and results in a waste of resources. Often, subject-matter experts are given training responsibilities because of their technical expertise; however, just as often, these subject-matter experts, or "incidental trainers," do not have a background in adult education, training, or facilitation. Incidental Trainer: A Reference Guide for Training Design, Development, and Delivery provides an evidence-based reference to successful training for subject-matter experts in any discipline who want to achieve the effectiveness of a professional trainer.

Organizations assume that subject-matter experts can train others, creating difficult situations for incidental trainers who may be at a loss on where to begin. This book guides incidental trainers through the process of training design, development, and delivery to help them achieve effectiveness in their training program. It explains the fundamental steps from assessing the training needs to validating the training program. The book then discusses advanced topics, such as how to build a business case for the training budget and training in the virtual environment.

The changing demographics of the workforce and technologies in delivery methods require adoption of new instructional strategies. Packed with practical tips for implementation in the real world, the book clearly details training techniques that incidental trainers can use to become proficient as professional trainers in enhancing training effectiveness to support organizational goals.


"… a true A to Z training encyclopedia. The m-learning information provides some excellent insight and preparations for taking advantage of the tools in front of us every day. I highly recommend the Incidental Trainer for any professional with training responsibilities."

—Craig Kimmel, BS, CIH, CSP, Global Health and Safety Manager, Arizona Chemical

"… All essential areas are included … The step by step approach to training is easy to follow, yet provides excellent information for all levels of trainers … an excellent resource … nothing missing that anyone training could need … All information is thorough and complete."

—Tami Grzesikowski, RDH, M.Ed., Senior Director for Allied Dental Education, American Dental Education Association

"I enjoyed reading this book and found it easy to follow the author’s ideas and insights. A wonderful guide … It goes beyond conceptual theory and provides a useful guide that anyone should have this book on their desk."

—Loretta Wong, BCom, FCIS, Legal and Administrative Officer, Legal Services, Corporate Finance, British Columbia Securities Commission

"… an inside look at the fundamentals of training. The book answers the questions on the how, what and why of training [and] provides the reader with clear examples of how to conduct effective training … a must-read … captures every aspect of professional training in the new millennium."

—Pamela D. Rolle, BSc, MBA, TEP, Assistant Vice President, Cititrust (Bahamas) Limited

"… the book caters to a wide range of trainers and covers all aspects of training, whether theoretical or from an application perspective."

—Mohammed Murad, Managing Director, Thought Provokers Management Consultancy, Dubai

"… a must-have for the library of any research institution that is developing or expanding their training programs. It provides guidance from founding a training program to augmenting the program, as well as guidance based on the level of expertise and confidence of the trainers. Not only is it useful for bona fide "trainers" but those that have been thrown into the role of trainer by circumstance, the job title or function, or for those that have an avid interest in training."

—Erin Mitchell, DVM

Table of Contents



What’s Wrong with That Training?

Who Are "Incidental Trainers"?

WIIFY—What’s In It For You?

What Are the Seven Keys to Successful Training?


Needs Assessment

The Myth: Training Is the Panacea

Needs Assessment

Training Needs Analysis

Task Analysis

Next Steps


Anatomy of a Training Plan

The Myth: No Planning Is Necessary

A Basic Tool

Structure of a Training Plan

Alternative Formats and Advantages

Learning or Performance Objectives

The Cornerstone of a Training Plan

Domains of Learning and Educational Objectives

Meaningful Learning Objectives

Next Steps


Instructional Strategies

Instructional Strategies Defined

The Ubiquitous Lecture

The "Cone of Experience"

Learning Styles

Many Roads, One Destination

Selection of the "Best" Strategies


Training Aids and Media

The Double-Edged Sword

Unlimited Choices!

Considerations for Choosing the "Best" Aids and Media


Physical Environment

Turning (an Almost) Perfect Training Plan into a Bomb!

Knowing the Basics of a Suitable Physical Environment

Managing What You Can Control

Handling What You Cannot Control

Pausing and Reflecting on Your Training Plan


Testing and Assessment

Criticality of Testing and Assessment

Approaches to Testing

Reliability and Validity

Testing Methods

Objectivity and Subjectivity

Next Steps


Presentation and Facilitation

A Tale of Two Incidental Trainers

Prior Proper Preparation

Effective Presentation—You Should Be Nervous!

Effective Facilitation—When Should You Stop Presenting?

Future Improvement


Course Evaluation

Why Ask for Criticism

Who the Evaluators Are

What Should Be Evaluated

How to Design a Course Evaluation Survey

Which Data Are Relevant

What Else Must Be Assessed


Program Validation and Continuous Quality Improvement

An Integrated Training Program

Program Validation Purposes

Program Validation Criteria

Program Validation Tools


Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI)

Organizational Impact



Gaining Organizational Support

Understanding Value and Support

Identifying Training Costs

Recognizing Training Benefits

Calculating Cost–Benefit or Benefit–Cost Ratio

Analyzing ROI

Pinpointing the "Hot Button"

Presenting the Business Case



Testing with Validity and Reliability

The "Weight of Evidence"

Validity and Reliability

Fixed-Choice Questions

Open-Ended Questions

Case Study and Situational Judgment

Performance Assessment

Cut Score



Conducting Meaningful Surveys

Why You Want to Know About Survey Design

What Affects Data Quality

What to Check in a Pilot Test



Leveraging Generational Learning

Four Generations at Work

Four Generations in Training



Training a Multicultural Work Force

Training in a "Flat" World

Understanding Cultural Diversity

Avoiding Cultural Pitfalls




Transitioning from Presenter to Facilitator

Focus on Trainee Achievement

Understand Learning Theories

Apply Instructional Design

Hone Communication Skills

Practice Questioning Techniques

Handle Disruptive Trainees

Give Helpful Feedback



Achieving the Four E’s of Training

The Four E’s of Training

Educational and Entertaining Materials

Enthusiastic and Engaging Trainer



Directing an Energized Training Event

Get Ready

Promote Attendance

Handle Logistics

Arrive Early

Greet Trainees

Start on Time

Present the Program

End on Time



Adopting the New Paradigm: Virtual Training and M-learning

Definition of Virtual Training

Evolution of Distance Learning

Caveats in Implementing Virtual Training

Strategies for the Virtual Classroom

Growth in M-learning

Advantages of Mobile Apps

Expectations of Mobile App Features

Design of Mobile Apps for Training

Inclusion of Performance Support Tools

Successful Deployment of Virtual Training





Appendix A: Training Needs Analysis Sample Form

Appendix B: Task Analysis Sample Form

Appendix C: Training Plan Sample Form

Appendix D: Course Evaluation Sample Form

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS / Human Resources & Personnel Management
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Industrial Engineering
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Industrial Health & Safety