Individual Differences in Arithmetic : Implications for Psychology, Neuroscience and Education book cover
2nd Edition

Individual Differences in Arithmetic
Implications for Psychology, Neuroscience and Education

ISBN 9781315755526
Published March 27, 2019 by Routledge
408 Pages

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Book Description

Arithmetic is still hugely important in many aspects of modern life, but our personal attitudes to it differ greatly. Many people struggle with the basic principles of arithmetic, whilst others love it and feel confident in their arithmetical abilities. Why are there so many individual differences in people’s performance in, and feelings about, arithmetic?

Individual Differences in Arithmetic explores the idea that there is no such thing as arithmetical ability, only arithmetical abilities. The book discusses several important components of arithmetic, from counting principles and procedures to arithmetical estimation, alongside emotional and cognitive components of arithmetical performance. This edition has been extensively revised to include the latest research, including recent cross-cultural and cross-linguistic research, the development of new interventions for children with difficulties and studies of early foundations of mathematical abilities.

Drawing on developmental, educational, cognitive and neuropsychological studies, this book will be essential reading for all researchers of mathematical cognition. It will also be of interest to educators and other professionals working within individuals with arithmetic deficits.

Table of Contents


  1. Individual Differences in Arithmetic: Children, Adults, Males, Females, Weaknesses and Talents
  2. There Is No Such Thing as Arithmetical Ability – Only Arithmetical Abilities
  3. Relationships Between Arithmetic and Other Abilities
  4. Counting and After: The Importance of Individual Differences
  5. Is Arithmetic a Foreign Language?: Representing Numbers and Arithmetic Problems in Different Forms and Translating Between Them
  6. Derived Fact Strategies
  7. A Good Guess: Estimation and Individual Differences
  8. Arithmetic Facts, Procedures and Different Forms of Memory
  9. Effects of Culture, Language and Experience
  10. The Brain and Individual Differences in Arithmetic
  11. "Maths Doesn't Like Me Anymore": The Role of Attitudes and Emotions
  12. Implications for Helping Children with Their Arithmetical Difficulties
  13. Some Practical Guides to Helping Children with Mathematical Difficulties






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Ann Dowker is a University Research Lecturer at the Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford. She is the lead researcher on the Catch Up Numeracy intervention project.