Industrial Hygiene Control of Airborne Chemical Hazards: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Industrial Hygiene Control of Airborne Chemical Hazards

1st Edition

By William Popendorf

CRC Press

728 pages | 298 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2006-05-15
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Description

Do you need guidelines for choosing a substitute organic solvent that is safer to use? Do you need an effective, cheap but perhaps temporary way to reduce exposures before you can convince your employer to spend money on a long-term or more reliable solution? Do you need information about local exhaust ventilation or personal protective equipment like respirators and gloves?

Industrial Hygiene Control of Airborne Chemical Hazards provides the answers to these questions and more. Science-based and quantitative, the book introduces methods for controlling exposures in diverse settings, focusing squarely on airborne chemical hazards. It bridges the gap between existing knowledge of physical principles and their modern application with a wealth of recommendations, techniques, and tools accumulated by generations of IH practitioners to control chemical hazards.

Provides a unique, comprehensive tool for facing the challenges of controlling chemical hazards in the workplace.

Although William Popendorf has written the book at a fundamental level, he assumes the reader has some experience in science and math, as well as in manufacturing or other work settings with chemical hazards, but is inexperienced in the selection, design, implementation, or management of chemical exposure control systems. Where the book is quantitative, of course there are lots of formulae, but in general the author avoids vague notation and long derivations.

Table of Contents

AN INTRODUCTION TO INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE CHEMICAL HAZARD CONTROL

An Overview of Industrial Hygiene

The Spatial Spectrum of Exposure Scenarios

The IH Paradigm of Control Priorities

The Approach, Organization, and Philosophy of this Book

BASIC GAS AND VAPOR BEHAVIOR

Gas and Vapor Definitions

Vapor Pressure Changes with Liquid Temperature

IH Uses of Dalton's Law

IH Uses of the Ideal Gas Law

The Effects of T and P on Airborne Concentration

The Effects of T and MW on Plume Density

Dense Vapors

BASIC AEROSOL BEHAVIOR

How Aerosols Differ from Gases and Vapors

Aerosol Definitions

Particle Diameter Distributions

Modeling Particle Behavior

Stokes and Aerodynamic Diameters

Aerosol Diameters and Human Health

CHEMICAL EXPOSURE CONTROL CRITERIA

Performance and Specification Standards

Health Criteria for Chemical Control

Safety Criteria for Chemical Control

The Oxygen Deficiency Criterion

Comparisons among Criteria

OSHA Ventilation Standards

Open-Surface Tanks

Appendix

VAPOR GENERATION AND BEHAVIOR

Mechanisms of Vapor Generation

Mechanisms of Plume Dispersion

Four Universal Airborne Chemical Exposure Scenarios

Four Settings with Vapor Accumulation

Vapors from Incomplete Evaporation with No Ventilation

Vapors from Complete Evaporation with No Ventilation

Differentiating between Complete from Incomplete Evaporation

Vapors from Continuous Evaporation with Ventilation

VAPOR PRESSURE IN MIXTURES

Mixtures

Defining Liquid Mixtures

Raoult's Law for Ideal Liquid Mixtures

The Need for an Empirical Adjustment to Raoult's Law

Methods to Predict an Empirical Adjustment to Raoult's Law

Examples of Mixtures

Henry's Law

Measuring Mixtures Experimentally

Applying Predictive Methods to Mixtures

CHANGING THE WORKPLACE

The Technologic Dimension of Change

The Psychologic Dimension of Change

The Economic Dimension of Change

Implementing the IH Control Paradigm

SOURCE CONTROL VIA SUBSTITUTION

Alternative Technologies

Volatility and Alternative Chemicals

Aqueous Solvents

Semiaqueous Solvents

Organic Solvents

Toxicity versus Volatility

The Vapor Hazard Ratio

Using VHR and Other Indices in Risk Management

OTHER SOURCE AND NONVENTILATION PATHWAY CONTROLS

Concepts

Some Nonvolatile Chemical Source Controls

Some Volatile Chemical Source Controls

Effects of Modifying Volatile Chemical Source Variables

Work Practices as an Exposure Control

Automation as an Exposure Control

Separation as an Exposure Control

Isolation as an Exposure Control

Fundamental Nonventilation Control Equations

AN OVERVIEW OF LOCAL EXHAUST VENTILATION

Local Exhaust Ventilation Definitions

Principles of Local Exhaust Ventilation

The LEV Design Sequence

VENTILATION FLOW RATES AND PRESSURES

Applying Conservation of Mass to Ventilation

Applying Conservation of Energy to Ventilation

Static Pressures (P and SP)

Velocity Pressure

Total Pressure and Pressure Losses

Compilation of the Fundamental Ventilation Control Equations

Appendix

MEASURING VENTILATION FLOW RATES

Qualitative Air Flow Indicators

Air Velocity and Manometers

Aerodynamic Velocity Meters

Thermodynamic Velocity Meters

The Boundary Layer

Assessing Flow in Ducts

Calibrating Anemometers

DESIGNING AND SELECTING LOCAL EXHAUST HOODS

Local Exhaust Hood Design Principles

Selecting a Control Velocity

Using the DallaValle Equation

Designing a Slotted Collection Hood

Designing a Hood Using an ACGIH "VS" Diagram

Designing a Hood for an Open Surface Tank

Designing a Canopy Hood over an Isothermal Source

Designing a Canopy Hood over a Hot Source

Designing a Push-Pull Hood System

Using an Air Shower

Using Commercial and Other Specialty Hoods

PREDICTING PRESSURE LOSSES IN VENTILATION SYSTEMS

A Primer on Energy and Pressure Losses

Energy Losses from Hood or Duct Entry

Selecting a Duct Velocity

Selecting the Duct Size and Material

Energy Losses from Friction in Straight Ducts

An Example of Hood Entry and Duct Friction Losses

Turbulence in Duct Fittings

Losses from Elbows

Losses from Duct Contractions

Losses from Duct Expansions

Comparing Contraction and Expansion Losses

Energy Losses in Branched Duct Systems

The LEV Design Worksheet

EXHAUST AIR CLEANERS AND STACKS

Air Cleaning Needs and Options

Air Cleaner Selection Criteria

Particulate Aerosol Collectors

Aerosol and Gas Collectors

Gas and Vapor Collectors

Exhaust Stacks and Reentrainment

VENTILATION FANS

Fans have Two Pressures

Fan Performance

Matching Fan Performance to System Requirements

Some Air Mover Terminology

Axial Fans

Centrifugal Fans

The Fan Laws

Fan Selection and Installation

VENTILATION OPERATING COSTS

Fan Efficiency and Power Consumption

Electricity Costs for Fans

Make-Up Air

Heating Costs for Make-Up Air

Cooling Costs for Make-Up Air

Energy Conservation

LEV SYSTEM MANAGEMENT

Why Monitor System Performance

When to Monitor System Performance

Where, What, and How to Monitor System Performance

LEV Troubleshooting

Postinstallation LEV Adjustments

Appendix

GENERAL VENTILATION AND TRANSIENT CONDITIONS

General Ventilation and Chemical Control

Components of the Dilution Ventilation Model

The General Solution to the Dilution Ventilation Model

Concentrations during a Transient Increase

Concentrations during a Transient Decrease

Accumulation with No Ventilation

GENERAL VENTILATION IN STEADY STATE CONDITIONS

The Concentration in Steady State Conditions

Normal Building Ventilation Requirements

Methods to Estimate a Contaminant Generation Rate

General Ventilation (HVAC) Systems

Controlling Exposures Via Dilution Ventilation

Sources of HVAC and Indoor Air Quality Problems

ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROLS AND CHEMICAL PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

Administrative Controls

Personal Protective Equipment

Basic PPE Program Management

Terms and Concepts Regarding Chemical PPE

Recognizing Dermal Hazards

Chemical Protective Gloves

Chemical Protective Clothing

Levels of PPE Ensembles

Appendix

RESPIRATOR CONTROLS

Respirator Terms and Concepts

Different Kinds of Protection Factors

Variables Affecting Protection Factors

Respirator Fit and Seal Testing

Respiratory Protection Program Requirements

A Respirator Selection Protocol

Appendices

APPENDICES

Index

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI026000
SCIENCE / Environmental Science
TEC017000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Industrial Health & Safety