1st Edition

Infectious Diseases in Immunocompromised Hosts



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ISBN 9780849385537
Published December 29, 1997 by CRC Press
1232 Pages

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Book Description

Because of limited access to medical libraries and medical journals, the majority of clinicians may find it difficult to keep informed on the latest developments in drug manufacture and treatment of infectious diseases in immunocompromised patients. This new handbook strives to fulfill the need for information in this area of medicine.
This is the first book on drug development and treatment of infectious diseases in immunocompromised hosts. It integrates both results from large-scale clinical trials and single cases as well as small groups of patients. It covers bacterial, viral, parasitic, and fungal infections, including a wide array of diseases. Infectious Diseases in Immunocompromised Hosts encompasses not only opportunistic infections associated exclusively with immunocompromised patients, but also common infections that become life-threatening for immunosuppressed individuals.

Table of Contents

SECTION I. VIRAL INFECTIONS
Herpesviridae
Cytomegalovirus
Clinical Manifestations of HCMV Disease
Immunologic Response to HCMV Disease
HCMV Infection in Immunocompromised Hosts and AIDS
Studies on Therapeutics
Evolution of Therapies and Treatment of HCMV Infections
References
Varicella-Zoster Virus
Studies on Therapeutics
Evolution of Therapies and Treatment of Varicella-Zoster Infections
References
Herpes Simplex Virus
Host Immune Response to Herpes Simplex Virus Infections
Evolution of Therapies and Treatment of Herpes Simplex Virus Infections
References
Epstein-Barr Virus
Immune Response to Epstein-Barr Infection
Evolution of Therapies and Treatment of Epstein-Barr Infections
References
Human Herpesvirus-6, Human Herpesvirus-7, and Human Herpesvirus-8
Role of Herpesvirus-6 in HIV Disease
Drug Susceptibility of Human Herpesvirus-6
Human Herpesvirus-7
Human Herpesvirus-8
References
Papovaviridae
Human Papillomavirus
Studies on Therapeutics
Evolution of Therapies and Treatment of Papillomavirus Infections
References
Polyomaviruses
Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (JC Virus Infection)
References
Adenoviridae
Adenoviruses
Adenovirus Modulation of Immune Responses
Treatment of Adenovirus Infections
References
Parvoviridae
Human Parvovirus B19
Evolution of Therapies and Treatment of Human Parvovirus B19 Infections
References
Paramyxoviridae
Respiratory Syncytial Virus
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections in Immunocompromised Patients
Evolution of Therapies and Treatment of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections
References
Poxviridae
Molluscum Contagiosum
Treatment of Moluscum Contagiosum
References
Hepadnaviridae
Hepatitis
Hepatitis A
Hepatitis B
Hepatitis C
Hepatitis D (Delta)
References
SECTION II. BACTERIAL INFECTIONS
Actinomycetes
Nocardia spp.
Evolution of Therapies and Treatment of Nocardiosis
Biological Response Modifiers from Nocardia spp.
References
Rhodococcus equi
Evolution of Therapies and Treatment of Rhodococcus equi Infection
References
Tsukamurella paurometabolum
Evolution of Therapies and Treatment of T. paurometabolum Infection
References
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infections in AIDS Patients
Host Immune Defense Against Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Studies on Therapeutics
Evolution of Therapies and Treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infections
References
Mycobacterium bovis
Host Immune Response to Mycobacterium bovis Infection
Treatment of Mycobacterium bovis Infections
References
Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections
In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of Anti-Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Agents
Virulence Antigens of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria
Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections and AIDS
Mycobacterium avium Complex (MAC)
Mycobacterium scrofulaceum
Mycobacterium kansasii
Mycobacterium fortuitum-chelonae Complex
Mycobacterium xenopi
Mycobacterium haemophilum
Mycobacterium szulgai
Mycobacterium malmoense
Mycobacterium genavense
Mycobacterium simiae
Mycobacterium marinum
Mycobacterium gordonae
Mycobacterium ulcerans
Mycobacterium terrae-triviale Complex
Mycobacterium asiaticum
Mycobacterium thermoresistibile
Mycobacterium neoaurum
Mycobacterium nonchromogenes
Mycobacterium flavescens
Mycobacterium paratuberculosis
Mycobacterium shimoidei
Mycobacterium celatum
Phylogeny of Fast-Growing Mycobacteria
References
Enterobacteriaceae
Shigella spp.
Studies on Therapeutics
Evolution of Therapies and Treatment of Shigellosis
References
Salmonella spp.
Evolution of Therapies and Treatment of Salmonella Infections
Salmonella typhimurium
Salmonella arizonae
Salmonella dublin
Salmonella choleraesius
Salmonella enteritidis
References
Yersinia enterocolitica
Host Immune Defense Against Yersinia enterocolitica
Evolution of Therapies and Treatment of Y. enterocolitica Infections
References
Campilobacter spp.
Studies on Therapeutics
Macrolide Antibiotics
Fluoroquinol-4-ones
Mechanism of Fluoroquinolone Resistance
Evolution of Therapies and Treatment of Campylobacteriosis
Campylobacter jejuni/coli-Associated Enteritis
Campilobacter fetus-Associated Infections
Campilobacter Infections in HIV-Positive and AIDS Patients
Helicobacter pylori-Induced Infections in HIV-Positive Patients
Host Immune Response to Campylobacteriosis
Campylobacter jejuni Bacteremia and the Guillain-Barré Syndrome
References
Non-Cholera Vibrio spp.
Treatment of Vibrio vulnificus Infections
References
Listeria Monocytogenes
Host Immune Defense Against Listeriosis
Listeriosis in AIDS Patients
Treatment of Listeriosis
References
Gastrointestinal Infections in the Immunocompromised Host
Therapeutic Strategies for Enteric Infections
Prevention of Enteric Infections
References
Neisseriaceae
Acinetobacter spp.
Evolution of Therapies and Treatment of Acinetobacter Infections
References
Moraxella spp.
Evolution of Therapies and Treatment of M. nonliquefaciens Infection
References
Neisseria spp.
Treatment of Neisseria Infections
References
Pseudomonadaceae
Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia
Treatment of B. cepacia Infections
Drug Resistance of Pseudomonas spp.
References
Stenotrophomonas (Xanthomonas) maltophilia
Drug Development and Treatment of S. maltophilia Infections
References
Rickettsiaceae
Bartonella spp.
Evolution of Therapies and Treatment of Bartonella Infections
References
Ehrlichia spp.
Evolution of Therapies and Treatment of Ehrlichiosis
References
Alcaligenaceae and Related Bacteria
Alcaligenes xylosoxidans
Evolution of Therapies and Treatment of Alcaligenes xylosoxidans
Ochrabactrim anthropi
Introduction and Taxonomy
Treatment of Ochrabactrim anthropi Infection
Agrobacterium radiobacter
"Achromobacter" Group B
References
Leuconostoc spp.
Treatment of Leuconostoc spp. Infections and the Problem of Resistance to Vancomycin
References
Treponema pallidum
Host Immune Response to Treponema pallidum
Central Nervous System Involvement in Syphilis
Evolution of Therapies and Treatment of Syphilis
Syphilis in HIV-Infected Patients
Antibiotic Treatment of Neurosyphilis in Immunocompromised Hosts
Biopharmacology of Penicillin Chemotherapy of Syphilis
The Jarsch-Herxheimer Reaction
References
Mycoplasma spp.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Mycoplasma genitalium
Studies on Therapeutics
Fluoroquinolones
Macrolide Antibiotics
Role of Hormones in Genital Mycoplasms
Evolution of Therapies and Treatment of Mycoplasma Infections
Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infections
Mycoplasma hominis Infections
Mycoplasma fermentans (incognitus strain) Infections
Mycoplasma penetrans Infections
Mycoplasmas as Cofactors Promoting AIDS
In Vitro Susceptibility of Mycoplasma spp. to Antimicrobial Agents and Clinical Significance
References
SECTION III. PARASITIC INFECTIONS
References
Eucoccidiida
Cryptosporidium spp.
Evolution of Therapies and Treatment of Cryptosporidiosis
References
Isospora spp.
Evolution of Therapies and Treatment of Isosporiasis
References
Toxoplasma gondii
Host Immune Response to Toxoplasma gondii
Studies on Therapeutics
Mode of Action and Pharmacokinetics of Sulfonamides and Antifolate Drugs
Evolution of Therapies and Treatment of Toxoplasmosis
The Role of Immunotherapy in the Treatment of Toxoplasmosis
Drug-Resistant Mutants of Toxoplasma gondii
References
Microsporidia
Ocular Microsporidiosis
Host Immune Response to Microsporidia
Studies on Therapeutics
Fumagillin
Albendazole
Benomyl
Microsporidial Targets for Chemotherapeutic Intervention
Evolution of Therapies and Treatment of Microsporidiosis
References
Leishmania spp.
Visceral Leishmaniasis (Kala-azar)
Cutaneous Leishmaniasis
Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis
Diffuse Cutaneous Leishmaniasis
Evolution of Therapies and Treatment of Leishmaniasis
Liposomal Amphotericin B
Host Immune Response to Leishmaniasis
References
Strongyloides stercoralis
Strongyloidiasis in HIV-Infected Patients
Cutaneous Manifestations of Strongyloidiasis
Corticosteroid Therapy as a Predisposing Factor for Strongyloidiasis
Treatment of Strongyloidiasis
References
Cyclospora spp.
Host Immune Response to Cyclospora
Treatment of Cyclosporiasis
References
Arthropod Infestations in HIV-Infected Patients
Scabies (Sarcoptidosis)
Demodicidosis
References
SECTION IV. FUNGAL INFECTIONS
General Characteristics of Fungi
Fungal Taxonomy
Fungal Cell Envelope and Mode of Action of Antimycotic Agents
Fungal Cell Wall
Fungal Cell Membrane
Mechanism of Action of Polyene Antibiotics
Inhibition of Glucan Biosynthesis
Cell Wall Mannoproteins as Potential Target of Antifungal Agents
Chitin Biosynthesis as Target of Antifungal Agents
Sterol Biosynthesis as Target of Antifungal Agents
Inhibition of Fungal Squalene Epoxidase
Inhibition of Fungal Cytochrome P-450-Dependent 14a-Sterol Demethylase
Inhibition of Fungal D14-Reductase and D8-D7-Isomerase
The Role of Iron in Fungal Metabolism
Removal of Iron from Erythrocytes
Secretion of Chelators
Citrate or Transferin-Mediated Uptake
Plasma Membrane Ferric Reductases
Molecular Approaches to Novel Targets for Antifungal Therapy
Cryptococcal Diphenol Oxidase
MyristoylCoA:Protein N-Myristoyltransferase
Candida albicans PHR1 Gene and Its Role in Cell Wall Growth
Macrophage-Induced Genes of Histoplasma capsulatum
Deuteromycota (Fungi Imperfecti)
References
Cryptococcus neoformans
Studies on Therapeutics
Amphotericin B
5-Fluorocytosine
Azole Derivatives
Antibiotics Other than Amphotericin B
Miscellaneous Antifungal Agents
Host Immune Response to Cryptococcal Infection
Interleukin-12
The Role of Antibodies in Protection Against C. neoformans Infection
Evolution of Therapies and Treatment of Cryptococcosis
Amphotericin B
Combination of Amphotericin B with 5-Fluorocytosine and Other Drugs
5-Fluorocytosine
Azole Derivatives
Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii
Cryptococcus albidus
Cryptococcus laurentii
References
Candida spp.
Human Candidiasis
Candidal Infections in the Immunocompromised Host
Pathogenicity of Candida spp.
Host Immune Defense Against Candida albicans
Reconstitution of Defective Cell-Mediated Immunity
Studies on Therapeutics
Amphotericin B
Fluconazole
Clotrimazole
Compound D0870
Compound SCH 39304
Sertaconazole
Lanoconazole
Allylamine Derivatives
a-(1H-Imidazol-1-yl)arylmethyl)pyrrole
Anticandidal Lipopeptides
Nykkomycins
Drug Resistance of Candida spp.
Evolution of Therapies and Treatment of Candidiasis
Cutaneous Candidiasis
Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis
Oral and Esophageal Candidiasis
Systemic Candidiasis
Candidal Onychomycosis
Candidal Paronychia
Candidal Onychomycosis
Treatment of Candidal Onychomycosis and Paronychia
Emerging Candida spp. Infections
Candida zeylanoides
Candida famata
Candida kefir
Candida glabrata
Candida lusitaniae
Candida krusei
Candida rugosa
Candida guilliermondii
Candida norvegensis
Candida lipolytica
Candida viswanathii
Candida haemulonii
Pichia jadinii (Candida utilis)
References
Malassezia (Pytirosporum) spp.
Evolution of Therapies and Treatment of Malassezia Infections
Fungemia and Systemic Disease
Folliculitis
Tinea (Pityriasis) Versicolor
Seborrheic Dermatitis
References
Trichosporon beigelii
Evolution of Therapies and Treatment of Trichosporonosis
Blastoschizomyces capitatus
References
Rhodotorula spp.
Evolution of Therapies and Treatment of Rhodotorula Infections
Antibiotic YM-47522
References
Other Yeast-Like Fungi
Hansenula spp.
Evolution of Therapies and Treatment of Hansenula Infections
References
Fungi of the Order Moniliales
Dematiaceae Fungi: Phaeohyphomycosis and Chromoblastomycosis
Phaeohyphomycosis
Chromoblastomycosis
References
Geotrichum candidum
Evolution of Therapies and Treatment od Geotrichosis
References
Histoplasma spp.
Studies on Therapeutics
Evolution of Therapies and Treatment of Histoplasmosis
Host Immune Defense Against Histoplasmosis
African Histoplasmosis
Management of African Histoplasmosis and Evolution of Therapies
References
Blastomyces dermatitidis
Role of Host Immune Response Against Blastomyces dermatitidis
Studies on Therapeutics
Evoluation of Therapies and Treatment of Blastomycosis
References
Aspergillus spp.
Host Immune Response to Aspergillosis
Studies on Therapeutics
Evolution of Therapies and Treatment of Aspergillosis
Aspergillus chevalieri
References
Coccidioides immitis
Studies on Therapeutics
Evolution of Therapies and Treatment of Coccidioidomycosis
Host Immune Response Against Coccidioidomycosis
References
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis
Host Immune Response to Paracoccidioidomycosis
Paracoccidioidomycosis in the Immunocompromised Host
Evolution of Therapies and Treatment of Paracoccidioidomycosis
References
Hyalohyphomycosis
Evolution of Therapies and Treatment of Hyalohyphomycosis
References
Penicillium marneffei
Evolution of Therapies and Treatment of Penicilliosis marneffei
References
Paecilomyces spp.
Evolution of Therapies and Treatment of Paecilomyces Infections
References
Zygomycota
Zygomycosis (Mucormycosis, Phycomycosis)
Zygomycetous Infections
Evolutions of Therapies and Treatment of Zygomycosis
References
Pneumocystis carinii
Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia
Studies on Therapeutics
Evolution of Therapies and Treatment of Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia
References
Index

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