Insect Vectors and Plant Pathogens: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Insect Vectors and Plant Pathogens

1st Edition

By Nachhattar Singh Butter

CRC Press

470 pages | 11 Color Illus. | 6 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2018-09-18
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Description

The history of pathogens and vectors, unique symptoms of diseases and economic importance of important viral diseases have been dealt with in the introductory chapter of this book. While highlighting the role of arthropods, nematodes, and fungi; other agents of the spread of plant pathogens have also been included. Important aspects of insect vectors with direct bearing on transmission, i.e. vector identification, biology, feeding apparatus, and mechanism of spread including control of pathogens through vectors are covered comprehensively. As aphids and other hemipterous insects are major insect vectors, the book stresses on this order. There is a focus on the transmission of determinants under different categories of the transmission mechanism. The transmission determinant paradigm comprising coat protein and helper component has been expounded with recent cases. A brief description of new diseases at least one from each genus of plant viruses has been included in this compendium to elucidate the interaction of vector and virus. Phytoplasmal etiology of pathogens has been detailed separately on account of their importance. The transmission of plant viruses through insects with biting and chewing type of mouth parts has been discussed in detail as separate chapter. The latest research in the field of mites, nematodes, and fungi as vectors of plant viruses has been included. How the phytotoxemia is different from other crop disorders, has been critically explained with support from suitable and common examples of crop disorders. The book also highlights the effects of plant viruses on their vectors. An account of classification of plant viruses has also been given for better understanding of subject matter. Likewise, the information on the electron microscope along with its use has been included so as to define the procedure of examining sub-microscopic entities. The latest developments in the management of plant pathogens through vector management have been discussed with special reference to the use of biotechnology, crop protection, and plant resistance.

The book will be of value to the teachers and to researchers. It will also be useful for extension workers in managing crop disorders. Students and researchers of entomology, plant pathology, plant protection and virology disciplines will obtain the latest in the field, through this book.

Table of Contents

Introduction: Historical Background, Symptoms, Pathogens and Economic Importance

Historical Background

Symptoms

Pathogens

Economic Importance

Modes of Spread of Plant Pathogens

Vertical Transmission

Horizontal Transmission

 

Feeding Mechanism of Vectors and Plant Pathogens

Familiarization with Insect Vectors

Identification and Biology

Thysaoptera

Diptera

Coleoptera

Hymenoptera

Orthoptera

Lepidoptera

Dermaptera

Dictyoptera

Feeding Mechanism of Hemipterans

Feeding Mechanism of Chewing Insects

Mechanism of Transmission of Plant Pathogens

Mites

Nematodes

Fungi/Plasmodiophorids Protozoa

Mechanism of Spread of Fungi/ Bacteria/ Phytoplasma/ Rickettsia/ Nematodes/ Protozoa

 

Aphids

Identification

Life Cycle of Aphids

Virus Transmission Cycle

Feeding Mechanism

Virus Transmission

Helper Component/Coat Protein

Non-persistent Stylet-borne Viruses

Non-persistent Foregut-borne Plant Viruses

Persistent Circulative Viruses

Circulative propagative Viruses

Diseases caused by aphid-borne genera of plant viruses

Aphids and Fungi

Aphids and Bacteria

Leaf Hoppers/Plant Hoppers/Tree Hoppers/Frog Hoppers/Psylla/ Mealy Bugs/Scale Insects

Identification and Brief Life History

Feeding Mechanism of Homopterans

Transmission Determinants

Phenomenon of Cross Protection

Virus vector relationships

Homopterous borne pathogens /diseases

Mollicutes and Insect Relationships

Mechanism of Transmission of Mollicutes

Psyllid-borne Phytoplasma Diseases

Rickettsia Like Organisms

 

Whiteflies

Identification and Brief Biology

Feeding Mechanism and Pathogen Transmission

Virus Vector Relationship

Begomovirus

Crinivirus

Role of Coat Protein in Transmission

Diseases

 

Heteropterous Bugs and Thrips

Heteropterous bugs (True bugs)

Thrips Identification and Brief Biology

Thrips and Bacterial Pathogens

Thrips and Fungal Pathogens

 

Insect Vectors with Chewing Mouthparts

Beetles

Grasshoppers

Bees, Wasps, and Ants

Diptera as Vector

Moths/Butterflies and Fungi

Earwigs

Cockroaches

 

Mites

Identification and Brief Biology

Feeding Mechanism

Pathogen Transmission

Specificity in Transmission

Spread of Viruses

Diseases

Fungal Pathogens

Mites and Viroids

 

Nematodes

Identification and Brief Biology

Feeding Aapparatus

Mechanism of Pathogen Transmission

Specificity in Transmission

Diseases

Nematodes and Bacteria

Nematodes and Fungi

 

 

Fungi

Introduction

Characteristic Features of Vector Species

Mechanism of Transmission

Specificity

Virus Vector Relationships

Phytotoxemia

Symptoms of Different Agents in Crop Plants

Categories of Phytotoxemia

Microorganisms and Phytotoxemia

Distinction Between Viruses and Phytotoxemia

Nature of Toxin

Mechanism of Phytotoxemia

Plant Pathogens and Electron Microscope

Plant Pathogens

Electron Microscope

Types of Electron Microscopes

Preparation of Specimens for Examination

Uses of Electron Microscope

 

Pathogen Effects and Ecological Factors

Pathogen Effects

Climate /Weather Parameters and Virus-Vector-Host Interaction

Weather Parameters and Phytoplasma

Weather Parameters and Fungal Transmission

Light and Bacteria

Weather Parameters and Symptoms Expression

Vector-Virus Management Strategies

Vector Management Strategies

Exclusion of Virus from Region /Country

Use of virus free seed

Elimination of Pathogen Through Tissue Culture/Chemicals

Management of Vector with Chemicals

Management of vectors /invading vector population

Cultural Measures

Physical Control

Alteration in Insect Vector Behavior

Chemical Control

Biological Control

Integrated Pest Management

Breaking Life Cycle of Plant Virus (New approach)

About the Author

Professor Nachhattar Singh Butter was born on October 13, 1948, in the small village of Bathinda district in the Punjab state of India. After completion of schooling from a rural village in 1967, joined Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, and did BSc (Ag) in 1971, MSc (Entomology) in 1973 and Ph.D. (Entomology) in 1976. Being a meritorious student, Dr. Butter was awarded merit scholarship both in Bachelor and Masters programs and Senior Fellowship, CSIR during Ph.D. The fellowship was later on converted into Post Doctorate Fellowship on the completion of a degree in Nov.1976 to work in the field of insect vectors. It continued up to Feb 1977 on joining of the post of Assistant professor.He continued to work till his promotion as Entomologist in July 1987. In March 1994 he joined as a professor.After serving as professor up to June 2006,he took over as Head, Department of Entomology and continued to discharge administrative duties till superannuation in Oct 2008. He developed Integrated Pest Management system for cotton crop in Punjab and Indian Society for Cotton Improvement, Mumbai, honored him with Hexamar Award, 1992 for outstanding research contributions in cotton. He guided nine post graduate students in Entomology and taught both under- and post- graduate courses in Entomology. He has published 77 research articles in journals of repute besides 200 popular articles, 22 presented papers in seminars /workshops. He has four books to his credit in addition to contributed chapters in books and laboratory manuals. Dr. Butter has delivered 44 Radio /TV talks and 200 lectures to farmers on important topics.He is instrumental in establishing plant clinic in PAU, the model of which was emulated throughout the country. Dr. Butter visited erstwhile USSR in 1987 to study Integrated Pest Management in cotton as a member of the 2-men delegation. For the outstanding contributions in research teaching and extension in agriculture, the State Govt awarded him Punjab Sarkar Parman Patra, 2002. Dr. Butter is a fellow of Entomological Society of India and The Indian Society for the Advancement of Insect Science.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI011000
SCIENCE / Life Sciences / Botany
SCI025000
SCIENCE / Life Sciences / Zoology / Entomology
TEC003000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Agriculture / General