Instructional Supervision : Applying Tools and Concepts book cover
4th Edition

Instructional Supervision
Applying Tools and Concepts

ISBN 9781138649347
Published September 1, 2016 by Routledge
384 Pages 131 B/W Illustrations

SAVE ~ $26.99
was $89.95
USD $62.97

Prices & shipping based on shipping country


Book Description

This essential text for prospective school leaders enrolled in instructional supervision and evaluation courses provides the knowledge and practical tools to improve teacher effectiveness. Melding theory and practice, this book is a definitive guide to successful classroom observations, pre- and post-observation conferences, and approaches such as action research, peer coaching, and mentoring. The fourth edition of this text has been thoroughly updated to meet the needs of school leaders in today’s educational climate. Features new to this edition include:

  • Additional and updated tools to support school leaders in conducting effective classroom observations and assessing teachers’ professional learning needs;
  • New case studies, suggested fieldwork, and extended reflections to outline practical applications for the strategies discussed;
  • Suggested readings to supplement the information included in this book;
  • Expanded discussions of professional learning communities and the topic of motivation;
  • New chapters on teacher evaluation and instructional strategies that support personalization and learning technologies.

This book offers strategies to work with teachers at all stages in their careers, laying a strong foundation for effective instructional supervision in PreK-12 schools. Many of the templates and tools in this book are also available as free eResource downloads from our website (

Table of Contents

Supplemental Downloads

About the Author



1 Leadership Needed to Promote Supervision, Professional Development, and Teacher

Evaluation That Makes a Difference


Supervision, Professional Development, and Teacher Evaluation Are Not Linear, Lockstep


Leadership Beliefs and Practices to Unify Processes

Coherence Needed for Instructional Supervision, Professional Development, and Teacher


Accountability and High Stakes Challenges for Supervisors

Tool 1: Developing a Unified Vision for Supervision, Professional Development, and

Teacher Evaluation


Suggested Activities


2 Instructional Supervision

Introducing Instructional Supervision

The Intents of Instructional Supervision

Differentiated Supervision

Developmental Supervision

Styles That Support Differentiated and Developmental Supervision


Suggested Activities


3 Teacher Evaluation

Introducing Teacher Evaluation

The Intents and Purposes of Teacher Evaluation

Formative and Summative Evaluation

Federal and State Influences on Teacher Evaluation

Teacher Evaluation Systems

Value-Added Measures


Suggested Activities


4 Job-Embedded Professional Development

Introducing Job-Embedded Professional Development

Status of Professional Development

Standards for Professional Development

Learning Communities—More than a Reform Strategy

Tool 2: Job-Embedded Learning: Finding Time for Professional Development

Tool 3: Planning for Professional Development

Tool 4: Identifying Professional Development Needs

Making the Connection Between Instructional Supervision, Professional Development, and Job-Embedded Learning


Suggested Activities


5 Instruction and Learning Environments

Introducing Instruction and Learning Environments

Teacher Quality and Teacher Effectiveness

Effective Teachers

Accountability and Standards

Effective Instructional Practices

Inside Teacher Evaluation Frameworks

Observable Practices

Tool 5: Contextualizing Teaching and Learning—Getting to Observable Practices

Personalized Learning Environments and Learning Technologies


Suggested Activities


6 Career Stages, Adult Learning, and Supervision

Introducing Career Stages, Adult Learning, and Supervision

Tool 6: Career Stages

Tool 7: Goal Setting, Tracking Faculty Goals, and Goal Attributes

Adult Learning

Supervision That Embraces the Adult Learner across Career Stages


Suggested Activities


7 Motivation and Supervisory Leadership

Introducing Motivation and Supervisory Leadership

Motivation Defined

Motivation Theories

Leadership and Motivation

Implications for Supervisors


Suggested Activities


8 Informal and Formal Classroom Observations

Introducing Informal and Formal Classroom Observations

Group Classroom Observations

Tool 8: Informal Classroom Observations

Tool 9: Guidelines for Informal Classroom Observations

Formal Classroom Observations

The Clinical Supervision Model and Its Components


Suggested Activities


9 The Pre-observation Conference

Introducing the Pre-observation Conference

Tool 10: Attributes of the Pre-observation Conference

Focus and the Pre-observation Conference

The Johari Window and the Pre-observation Conference

How to Prepare for the Classroom Observation


Suggested Activities


10 The Classroom Observation

Introducing the Classroom Observation

The Intents of Data Collection

Tool 11: Types of Data

Tool 12: Wide-Angle and Narrow-Angle Data Collection Techniques

Tips from the Field

Overview and Application of Observation Tools and Methods

Tool 13: Observation Guide Using Bloom’s Taxonomy

Tool 14: Focus on Wait Time

Tool 15: Focus on Cause-and-Effect Data

Tool 16: Focus on Variety of Instructional Methods

Tool 17: Examining Teacher–Student Discussion with a Focus on How Student Comments Are Incorporated into the Lesson

Tool 18: Selective Verbatim: Teacher’s Verbal and Students’ Physical and Verbal Behaviors

Tool 19: Wide Angle: No Focus

Tool 20: Focus on Calling Patterns and Patterns of Interaction

Tool 21: Focus on Tracking Transition Patterns

Tool 22: Tracking the Beginning and Ending (Closure) of Class

Tool 23: Observing Cooperative Group Learning

Tool 24: Classroom Traffic


Suggested Activities


11 The Post-observation Conference

Introducing the Post-observation Conference

The Purposes of the Post-observation Conference

Lesson Reconstruction, Constructivism, and the Zone of Proximal Development

Preparing for the Post-observation Conference

Supervisory Approaches and the Post-observation Conference

Tool 25: Feedback, Trust, and the Johari Window Revisited

After the Post-Observation Conference, Then What?

Tool 26: Planning for Professional Growth


Suggested Activities


12 Mentoring and Induction

Introducing Mentoring and Induction

The Multifaceted and Complex Nature of Mentoring

Examining Qualities, Skills, and Functions of Mentors

Selecting, Training, and Assigning Mentors

Induction: Where Mentoring Matters Most

Formative Assistance: The Linkage to Supervision


Suggested Activities


13 Peer Coaching

Introducing Peer Coaching

Frame Peer Coaching

Phases of the Original Peer Coaching Model

Types of Coaching

Peer Coaching Includes Classroom Observations

Conditions for Successful Peer Coaching

Connecting Peer Coaching to Other Forms of Supervision


Suggested Activities


14 Action Research

Introducing Action Research

Action Research Defined

Models of Action Research

The Processes and Components of Action Research


Connecting Action Research to Instructional Supervision


Suggested Activities


15 Portfolio Supervision

Introducing Portfolio Supervision

What is a Portfolio?

Extending Clinical Supervision through Portfolio Development

A Model of Portfolio Supervision

Essential Skills: Reflection, Goal Setting, and Decision Making

The Portfolio as a Framework to Extend Supervision


Suggested Activities


16 Confronting Marginal Teaching

Introducing Confronting Marginal Teaching

Marginal Teaching

Markers of Marginal Teacher Performance

Understanding the Difficulties Supervisors Encounter While Working with Marginal Teachers

Confronting Marginal Teaching Practices

Working with Marginal Teachers

Tool 27: Formal Plan of Remediation

When All Else Fails


Suggested Activities


17 Coda for Instructional Supervision


Appendix: Classroom Observation Tools



View More



Sally J. Zepeda is Professor of Educational Administration and Policy at the University of Georgia, USA.


This 4th edition provides a masterful blending of time-tested supervisory tools with the latest trends in evaluation including value-adding measures, the influence of current legislation such as the Every Student Succeeds Act, and the continuing impact of technology in learning and teacher evaluation.  Dr. Zepeda has provided a valuable resource from both a theoretical and practical perspective.

- R. Stewart Mayers, Professor of Educational Instruction and Leadership, Southeastern Oklahoma State University

"I consider this text the quintessential resource in developing aspiring school leader’s knowledge and skills as they work to improve teacher practice. This 4th edition is additive in its organization of chapters and of current issues surrounding teacher evaluation, teacher learning communities, and effective teaching."

- Dana Bickmore, Associate Professor, School of Environmental and Public Affairs, University of Nevada, Las Vegas

"The new edition of this popular supervision text is focused on bringing much-needed coherence to the field. Dr. Zepeda presents a unified vision for supervision, professional development, and teacher evaluation centered on teacher growth and development."

- Stephen P. Gordon, Professor of Education and Community Leadership, Texas State University

Support Material