Instrumentation Design Studies  book cover
1st Edition

Instrumentation Design Studies

ISBN 9781439819487
Published January 20, 2010 by CRC Press
728 Pages 457 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Integrating physical modeling, mathematical analysis, and computer simulation, Instrumentation Design Studies explores a wide variety of specific and practical instrumentation design situations. The author uses MATLAB® and SIMULINK® for dynamic system simulation, Minitab® for statistical applications, and Mathcad for general engineering computations. Rather than consult the extensive manuals of these software packages, readers can access handy, sharply focused material in the appendices to assist in comprehension.

After introducing the techniques behind the design of experiments (DOE), the book discusses several technologies for implementing vibration isolation, the design of a high-accuracy pressure transducer, and the use of cold-wire thermometers for measuring rapidly fluctuating fluid temperatures. It then focuses on a basic piezoelectric actuator that provides translational motions up to about 1mm full scale with nanometer resolution, before covering instruments used to measure the viscosity of liquids as well as two special classes of microphones (infrasonic and ultrasonic) and their important specialized applications. The book also presents statistical tools, such as hypothesis testing and confidence intervals, for experiments; the design and applications of thrust stands for measuring vector forces and torques; and the analysis and simulation of a shock calibrator. It concludes with a discussion of how shock testing machines can help reduce or prevent mechanical failures.

Spanning system dynamics, measurement, and control, this book addresses the needs of practicing engineers working in instrumentation fields. It focuses on instruments for various applications, from geophysics to mechanical and aerospace engineering.

Table of Contents

Introduction to Statistical Design of Experiments: Experimental Modeling of a Cooling System for Electronic Equipment
Basic Concepts
Mathematical Formulation
Full Factorial and Fractional Factorial Experiments
Run-Sequence Randomization
Validation Experiments
Example Experiment: Modeling an Electronics Cooling Process
Using Minitab to Design the Experiment and then Analyze the Results
Multiple Regression: A General Tool for Analyzing Experiment Data and Formulating Models

Vibration Isolation for Sensitive Instruments and Machines
Passive Spring/Mass Isolators
Passive Air Spring Systems
Active Air Spring Systems
Low-Frequency Isolation Using Negative-Spring-Constant Devices
Active Electromechanical Vibration Isolation
Tuned Vibration Absorbers and Input-Shaping Methods

Design of a Vibrating Cylinder, High-Accuracy Pressure Transducer
Basic Concept
Cylinder Natural Frequency Calculations
Use of an Unstable Feedback System to Maintain Continuous Oscillation
Simulation of the Complete System
Ultra-Precision Calibration/Measurement Using a 15-Term Calibration Equation, Built-in Temperature Compensation, and Microprocessor Data Reduction

A Fast ("Cold-Wire") Resistance Thermometer for Temperature Measurements in Fluids
Circuitry and Wire Details
Estimating the Self-Heating Error
Estimating the Sensitivity to Desired and Spurious Inputs
Dynamic Response to Fluid Temperature Fluctuations
Use of Current Inputs for Dynamic Calibration
Electronic Considerations
Effect of Conduction Heat Transfer at the Wire Ends

Piezoelectric Actuation for Nanometer Motion Control
Mechanical Considerations
Actuators, Sensors, and Mounting Considerations
Control System Design

Preliminary Design of a Viscosimeter
Definition of Viscosity
Rotational Viscosimeters
Measurement of Torque
Dynamic Measurements
Velocity Servos to Drive the Outer Cylinder
Corrections to the Simplified Theory
Non-Newtonian Fluids
The Concept of the Representative Radius
The Concept of Effective Length
Cylinder Design According to German Standards
Designing a Set of Cylinders
Temperature Effect on Viscosity
Temperature Control Methods
Uncertainty Analysis
Encoder Angular Position and Speed Measurement
Practical Significance of the Shear Rate
Fitting a Power-Law Model for a Non-Newtonian Fluid

Infrasonic and Ultrasonic Microphones
Infrasonic Microphones
Diaphragm Compliance Calculation
Microphone Transfer Function
System Simulation
Adjusting Diaphragm Compliance to Include Air-Spring Effect
Wind Noise Filtering with Pipes and Spatial Arrays
Ultrasonic Microphones
Ultrasonic Acoustics Pertinent to Leak Detection

Some Basic Statistical Tools for Experiment Planning
Checking Data for Conformance to Some Theoretical Distribution
Confidence Intervals for the Average (Mean) Value
Comparing Two Mean Values: Overlap Plots and Confidence Intervals
Confidence Intervals for the Standard Deviation
Specifying the Accuracy Needed in Individual Measurements to Achieve a Desired Accuracy in a Result Computed from Those Measurements

Multi-Axial Force/Torque Measurement: Thrust Stands for Jet and Rocket Engines
Dynamics of Thrust Stand Force/Torque Measurement
Dynamic Response Equations of the Thrust Stand
Matrix Methods for Finding Natural Frequencies and Mode Shapes
Simulink Simulation for Getting the Time Response to Initial Conditions and/or Driving Forces/Moments
Frequency Response of the Thrust Stand
Matrix Frequency Response Methods
Simulation of the Asymmetric System: Use of Simulink Subsystem Module
Static Calibration of Thrust Stands
Damping of Thrust Stands
Flexure Design

Shock Calibrator for Accelerometers
Description of the Calibrator
Review of Basic Impact Calculations
Simulation of the Coefficient of Restitution Experiment
Some Analytical Solutions
Simulation of the Pneumatic Shock Calibrator Apparatus
Concluding Remarks

Shock Testing and the Shock Response Spectrum (SRS)
Analysis and Simulation of Response to Shock Inputs
Practical Shock Testing and Analysis
Vibration Shakers as Shock Pulse Sources
Design of a Shock Isolater
Relation of SRS to Actual Mechanical Damage
Measurement System and Data Acquisition/Processing Considerations

Appendix A: Basic MATLAB/SIMULINK Techniques for Dynamic Systems
Appendix B: Basic Statistical Calculations Using Minitab

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Ernest O. Doebelin is Professor Emeritus in the College of Engineering at Ohio State University, where he received the Alumni Award for Distinguished Teaching and the Charles E. MacQuigg Award for Outstanding Teaching.