Integral Knowledge Creation and Innovation : Empowering Knowledge Communities book cover
1st Edition

Integral Knowledge Creation and Innovation
Empowering Knowledge Communities

ISBN 9781138316515
Published July 28, 2020 by Routledge
238 Pages 9 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

This work focuses on the creation of new knowledge, and how this has happened throughout all ages, as far back as the time of ancient philosophy to today. A product of integral research, it covers the process of creating new knowledge, leveraging existing knowledge, sometimes resulting in cutthroat innovations. It also includes knowledge systems such as conventional university systems to Mode 2 university concepts, culminating on integral research to innovation.

This book will help the reader to realise that the subject of knowledge creation is no longer business as usual. Many innovations have been created for human benefit in general, but such innovations may have benefited only parts of society. The challenge in the world is that, while new innovations may be brilliant, there are sections of society who continue to slip into poverty. Modern innovators must also consider such communities and come up with appropriate interventions. This book will open the eyes of innovators to new possibilities. In addition, the subject of knowledge should not be an elitist affair. One may stand to gain a lot by seeing the knowledge in other people, whatever their station in life. This realisation can enable serious innovators to widen their scope in terms of the sources of existing knowledge which can be improved and reassessed as new knowledge. Such existing knowledge can be identified by engaging the very communities that may be affected by a problem or challenge. Such communities will have had time to interrogate their situations and think of possible solutions to such, though they might not have the economic capacity to implement such solutions. This is always a useful starting point if one is seeking a solution to a community problem.

This book will be useful to students interested in the subject of knowledge and innovation, from under-graduate to PhD level. It will also benefit captains of industry, executives and managers who are interested in improving their knowledge improvement cycles in their companies.

Table of Contents

List of Figures


Prologue: Integral Knowledge Creation And Innovation

Chapter 1 Introducing Knowledge Creation


Chapter 2 Why Knowledge Creation and Innovation

2.1 Introduction

2.2 What Catalyses Knowledge Creation

2.2.1 Social Needs

2.2.2 Economic Needs

2.2.3 Environmental Needs

2.2.4 Political Needs

2.2.5 Historical Needs

2.2.6 Intellectual Needs

2.2.7 Educational Needs

2.2.8 Spiritual Needs

2.2.9 Knowledge Creation and the World of Work

2.3 Genealogical Process

2.4 Contemporary Zimbabwean Context

2.5 Why Knowledge Can Never Remain Static

2.6 Consciousness to Evolution: Knowing What You Need to Change

2.7 The Importance of Knowledge in any Civilisation

2.8 Conclusion


Chapter 3 The Philosophy of Knowledge Creation

3.1 Introduction

3.2 What is Philosophy

3.2.1 Metaphysics

3.2.2 Ontology

3.2.3 Epistemology

3.3 The Early Philosophers

3.3.1 Ancient Philosophers

3.4 Modern Philosophers

3.4.1 Descartes, Milton, Hume, Kant and Hegel

3.4.2 Hursserl

3.4.3 Senghor

3.5 Contemporary African Philosophers

3.5.1 Early Explorers’ and Missionaries’ Views on Africa

3.5.2 Views and Facts on Western Philosophy

3.5.3 African Philosophy Kwasi Wiredu Kwame Gyekye Paulin Hountonji

3.5.4 Ethnophilosophy

3.5.5 Professional Contemporary African Philosophers

3.6 Philosophy and Knowledge Creation

3.7 Lessons Learnt from Philosophy

3.8 What Then is Knowledge?

3.9 The Link Between Philosophy and Knowledge Creation

3.10 Conclusion


Chapter 4 Religion and the Subject of Knowledge

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Religious Influences on Knowledge Creation in the East

4.2.1 What is Religion? The Christian Perspective The Islamic Perspective The Hindu Perspective The Chinese Folk Religion Perspective The Buddhist Perspective

4.3 Religious Influences on Knowledge Creation in the East

4.3.1 Religion in Japan

4.3.2 Jaworski’s "Source"

4.4 Conclusion

Chapter 5 Knowledge Creation and Societal Learning in the East: The SECI Model

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Creating Knowledge: An Eastern Perspective

5.2.1 Nonaka and Takeuchi’s Theory of Organisational Knowledge Creation The Four Modes of Knowledge Conversion The Knowledge Spiral Ba: Platform for Knowledge Creation Enabling Conditions for Organisational Knowledge Creation The Five-Phase Model for Organisational Knowledge Creation Process

5.3 The Impact of Care on Knowledge Development

5.4 Management Styles for Knowledge Creation

5.4.1 Top-Down Management

5.4.2 Bottom-Up Management

5.4.3 Middle-Up-Down Management

5.5 Organisational Structures and Knowledge Creation

5.6 Global Interactions in Knowledge Creation

5.7 Co-Evolution and Co-Opetition

5.7.1 A case for Co-Evolution

5.7.2 Cooperation and Knowledge Creation

5.7.3 Co-Opetition

5.8 The Synthesis of Subjectivity and Objectivity in Knowledge Creation

5.9 Implication of Nonaka and Takeuchi’s Knowledge Creation Model (SECI)

5.10 Implications of the SECI Model on a Zimbabwean Manufacturing Company

5.11 Conclusion

Chapter 6 Knowledge Creation and Societal Learning in the North and West

6.1 Introduction

6.2 The Impact of Smithsonian Institution on Knowledge Development in North America

6.3 The Indigenous and Exogenous Impact of Knowledge Creation in the United States of America

6.4 Traditional Mode 1 Knowledge Production

6.5 The Mode 2 System

6.5.1 The Nature of Research in Mode 2 Knowledge Production

6.5.2 The Central Idea of Mode 2

6.5.3 A Comparison of Mode 1 and Mode 2

6.6 The Triple Helix Model

6.7 Driving Forces Behind Universities

6.8 Practical Innovation

6.8.1 William Edwards Deming

6.8.2 Peter Senge

6.8.3 Ram Charan

6.9 Conclusion


Chapter 7 Knowledge Creation and Innovation at a Zimbabwean University: The Harare Institute of Technology Case Story

7.1 Introduction

7.2 The History of the Harare Institute of Technology (HIT)

7.3 The Background to an Innovative Approach at HIT

7.4 Curriculum Structure at HIT

7.5 Assessment/Examination

7.6 HIT’s Key Units

7.6.1 The Technology Centre

7.6.2 Technology Transfer and Licensing Centre (TTLC)

7.6.3 Technology Education Centre

7.7 Faculty of Pharmacy

7.7.1 Mandate of the Department of Pharmacy

7.7.2 Methodology

7.8 Commercialisation of Innovations

7.9 HIT/Schweppes Partnership: Another Case Story Within a Case Story

7.10 Lessons Drawn From HIT

7.11 Conclusion

Chapter 8 The Mode 2 University: The Da Vinci Institute Case Story

8.1 Introduction

8.2 About the Da Vinci Institute

8.3 Da Vinci Institute Offerings

8.4 Experiential Learning

8.5 The Subject of Knowledge

8.6 What is an Innovation?

8.7 Why Mode 2 May be Limited



Student Support

How Innovations are Shared With Society

8.10 Some Da Vinci Institute Learning Outcomes

8.11 Conclusion


Chapter 9 My Research to Innovation Journey: Research Methodology

9.1 Introduction

9.2 The Four Worlds Model

9.3 Research Methodology

9.4 Purpose of Research

9.4.1 Southern Relational Path

9.4.2 Outline of Envisaged Path

9.4.3 Grounding/Emancipation/Descriptive

9.4.4 Emerging/Foundation/Phenomenology

9.4.5 Navigation/Emancipation/Feminism

9.4.6 Effect/Transformation/PAR:CI

9.4.7 OFET

9.4.8 Eastern Path of Renewal

9.4.9 Northern Path of Reason

9.4.10 Western Path of Realisation

9.5 Why the Chosen Path (Southern Relational)

9.5,1 Personal Inclination

9.5.2 Cultural Perspective

9.5.3 Objectives of the Research

9.6 Secondary Path: Eastern Path of Renewal

9.7 Design of Research and Innovation

9.7.1 Method/Descriptive

9.7.2 Methodology: Phenomenology/Hermeneutics

9.7.3 Critique/Feminism/Critical Theory (Emancipation)

9.7.4 Participatory Action Research (PAR)/ Cooperative Inquiry (CI)

9.8 Specification of Research Method

9.9 Conclusion

Chapter 10 Cooperative Inquiry: Towards New Forms of Knowledge Creation

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Standing on the Shoulders of Giants

10.2.1 Stages of Cooperative Inquiry (CI)

10.2.2 Four Epistemologies

10.3 Practical Experience of Setting Up a CI Group

10.3.1 Purpose of Research

10.3.2 Structure of the Cooperative Inquiry Group

10.3.3 Stage 1

10.3.4 Stage 2

10.3.5 Experiential Knowing

10.3.6 Specific Problems Encountered in the Company

10.3.7 "We do not Expose Our Armpits"

10.4 Expectations of the Workforce in Terms of the Outcomes of the CI

10.5 Bringing our /African-ness into the Exogenous Workplace

10.5.1 Some Spiritual Revelations

10.6` Presentational Knowing

10.7 The Power of Enhanced Communication

10.8 Some Indigenous Wisdoms

10.9 Many Irons in the Fire

10.10 Conclusion


Chapter 11 The Calabash of Knowledge Creation (Denhe re Ruzivo)

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Propositional Knowing

11.2.1 The Merits of Denhe re Ruzivo

11.2.2 How Knowledge is Transferred at the Work Place

11.2.3 Nonaka and Takeuchi’s Knowledge Creation Spiral

11.2.4 What is Missing in This Model

11.2.5 The Calabash of Knowledge (for Knowledge Creation)

11.3 Practical Knowing

11.3.1 Testing the Model at Turnall

11.3.2 Testing the Model at Astra Paints and Art Corporation

11.4 Conclusion

Chapter 12 The Second Calabash: Pundutso Centre for Integral Development

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Pundutso’s Mission, Vision and Values

12.3 What Inspires Pundutso

12.4 What Pundutso Does

12.5 Pundutso as Home for PhD Students

12.6 Pundutso as Catalyst for Integral Development

12.7 Pundutso as Sponsor for Research Academy

12.8 Social Innovation

12.9 Towards a Communiversity

12.10 Conclusion

Chapter 13 Conclusion to Knowledge Creation and Innovation

13.1 Introduction

13.2 The Perceived Future of Knowledge Creation and Innovation

13.3 The Role of the Communiversity

13.4 The Work of Institutions such as Da Vinci and HIT

13.5 The Benefits of Knowledge Creation and Innovation in Business

13.6 Strategies for Social Innovation

13.7 The Importance of Propagation and Implementation

13.8 Conclusion

Epilogue to Integral Knowledge Creation and Innovation


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Elizabeth Mamukwa is Research Director at the Pundutso Research Institute. She was the chief editor for Integral Green Zimbabwe (2014). She began her career as a schoolteacher and then moved to Industry and Commerce in the Human Resources discipline. She has worked in five corporates in the Agriculture, Engineering, Manufacturing and Telecommunications sectors, rising to the position of Human Resources Director. She also carries out some consulting work.


"Elizabeth Mamukwa’s book is a multi-layered revelation: it practically demonstrates how to build and empower local knowledge communities; it is a solid pointer towards the much needed evolution of universities to become innovation platforms and catalysts for the production of relevant knowledge in the public and communal space; it is also an inspiring key to the renewal of societies, in particular of their capacity to innovate; and, finally, it has the power to enable a veritable renaissance of authentic knowledge creation in Zimbabwe, if not for Africa as a whole. For anyone working in the field of social innovation and societal renewal, I strongly recommend reading this important book." — Professor Alexander Schieffer, Co-Founder, Trans4m Center for Integral Development, Switzerland; Co-Founder, Home for Humanity, France; Co-Series Editor of the Routledge Transformation and Innovation Series

"This book could not have been published at a better time for Africa, and Zimbabwe in particular. The whole education systems is being reengineered to focus more on innovation and industrialisation, having realised that education that was being generated was not creating the knowledge that was necessary for innovation and transformation of our societies. In Integral Knowledge Creation and Innovation, Dr Mamukwa gives an exposé of this seemingly complex concept yet something that was lost from our indigenous knowledge systems embedded in the Ubuntu philosophy. The emphasis on knowledge creation not for its sake but for innovation is quite apt to prepare the African reader for the pending fourth industrial revolution. The book emphasises the need for collaboration in this knowledge creation. Collaboration is now the way to go regardless of the sector or industry one is in, and the concept of multi-disciplinary approaches to problem-solving promoted here is the way to go in this era. I like the concept of Communiversity introduced in this book that places knowledge creation and innovation in the right context of communities to ensure relevance, ownership and sustainability of research outputs. This concept, if supported, could prove complementary if not more effective than the innovation hubs being established at most conventional universities." — Moses Chundu, Lecturer, Economics Department, University of Zimbabwe and Executive Director, Africa Leadership & Management Academy

"A timely and exceedingly valuable publication intended for scholars and social scientists engaged in research, innovation and knowledge creation. The book comprehensively captures the narratives on knowledge creation through the Mode 1 and Mode 2 university. The mode 1 being the more traditional format of university education while the Mode 2 is relatively contemporary, putting emphasis on transdisciplinary approaches that transcends local and national boundaries. This resource draws exciting contrasts in Knowledge Creation from all corners of the globe. This text is indeed a must-read for you as it extends the frontiers of knowledge in research and innovation." — Professor David D. Chakuchichi, Dean of Student Affairs, Zimbabwe Open University

"Dr Elizabeth Mamukwa in this book shares readily knowledge she acquired through her doctoral and post-doctoral research journeys. The former culminated in her Calabash of Knowledge Creation/Denhere re Ruzivo innovation and the latter being a revelation of concepts such as technopreneurship at the Harare Institute of Technology and numerous work based innovations from the mode 2 Da Vinci Institute of Technology. The book which is structured along the 4 Cs concept, the acronym for Call, Context, Co-Creation and Contribution, raises consciousness and know-how on the subject of Knowledge Creation and Development in order to empower individuals, communities and many organizations. Dr Mamukwa skilfully weaves knowledge with philosophy and religion and challenges individuals and organisations to collaborate, albeit from different perspectives, in taking knowledge creation and the encouragement and promotion of innovation to a higher level of impacting communities.

In the process she consolidates indigenous and exogenous knowledge rhythms taking into consideration learnings from the four corners of the earth, North, South, East and West, with a view to coming up with better knowledge systems. The book will thus be very relevant to the entire business community, the knowledge industry and to academia." — Passmore Matupire (PhD)