There are overwhelming demands for health and rehabilitation services due to rise in the number of disabled people. The existing literature on disability evaluation has only focused on impairment or functional limitation or earning capacity. They have not considered the skills fundamental to live, learn and work successfully in the community. This book addresses integrated evaluation of disability using ‘Clinical Tools’, ‘Activity Participation Skills Assessment Scale’, ‘Personal Factors Measurement Scale’, and ‘Environmental Factors Measurement Scale’. Physicians from all disciplines can use this method to evaluate disability pertaining to their respective fields.
- Applies the principles of ‘World Health Organization’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - ICF’
- Includes case studies in the hypothetical model in this book
- Includes a Ready Reckoner Impairment Table provides impairment score for 120 common clinical conditions
- Consists of an integrated software which computes percentage of disability for clinical conditions
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 – Introduction to Disability
1.1 Major life activities
1.2 Who is disabled?
1.3 Definition of impairment, limitation of activity, participation restriction, disability
1.4 Causes and Classification of disability
1.5 Temporary and permanent disability
1.6 Severity of disability
1.7 Prevalence of disability
1.8 Disability Adjusted Life Years - DALY
1.10 Importance of ‘Disability Evaluation’
Chapter 2 – Basis for 'Integrated Evaluation of Disability'
2.1 Methodology for Developing 'Integrated Evaluation of Disability'
2.2 Evolution of Methods of Disability Evaluation
2.3 'Integrated Evaluation of Disability'
Chapter 3 – Literature Review and Selection of Clinical Tools and Scales
3.1 Selection of functions and structures for evaluation of impairment
3.2 Review of literature and identification of clinical tools and scales
3.3 Selection of activities & participation and environmental factors
3.4 Review of literature and identification of Scales for evaluation of limitation of activities and participation restriction, and environmental and personal factors
3.5 World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale – WHODAS 2.0 scales
3.6 Activity, participation skill assessment scale, personal factors measurement scale, and environmental factors measurement scale
Chapter 4 - Methods for assigning impairment
4.1 Prevailing methods of assigning percentage of disability 4.2 Prevailing methods of disability evaluation based on ICF 4.3 'Integrated Evaluation of Disability' - Guidelines for Assigning Impairment 4.4 Applying Guidelines to Assign Impairment in 'Integrated Evaluation of Disability'
4.5 Comparison of Impairment in 'Integrated Evaluation of Disability' with that of Disability Schedules/Methods (Australia, Canada, Europe, India, Korea, USA (AMA)
Chapter 5 – Validation of Clinical Methods/Scales 5.1 Delphi Process 5.2 Modified Delphi Process and Pilot Study: Application in Clinical Model
Chapter 6 - Impairment of Functions in Nervous System
6.1 Consciousness function 6.2 Sleep Function 6.3 Cognitive Function 6.4 Language Functions 6.5 Articulation Function 6.6 Voice Functions 6.7 Cranial Nerves Functions 6.8 Motor Functions 6.9 Sensory Functions 6.10 Combining Impairment 6,11 Ready Reckoner Impairment Table
Chapter 7 – Impairment of Functions in Neuromusculoskeletal System
7.1 Motor Functions 7.2 Functions of the Joint 7.3 Sensory Function 7.4 Combining Motor and Sensory Impairment
Chapter 8 – Impairment of Urogenital Functions
8.1 Excretory Function of Kidney
8.2 Micturition Function
8.3 Genital Functions
Chapter 9 – Impairment of Cardiovascular Functions
9.1 Cardiovascular Functions 9.2 Evaluation of functions of the heart 9.3 Functions of the Blood Vessels 9.4 Functions of the Lymphatic System
Chapter 10 – Impairment of Pulmonary Functions
10.1 Pulmonary Function
10.2 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases – COPD
10.4 Restrictive Lung Disease
10.5 Chronic Respiratory Failure
10.6 Respiratory Muscle Paralysis
10.7 Sleep Apnea/Hypopnea Syndrome
Chapter 11 – Impairment of Hematological and Immunological Functions
11.1 Hematological System 11.2 Immune Functions
Chapter 12 – Impairment of Swallowing, Liver, and Defecation Functions
12.1 Swallowing Function
12.2 Liver Functions
12.3 Defecation Function
Chapter 13 - Impairment of Visual Functions 1-25
13.1 Visual Functions
13.2 Acuity of Vision
13.3 Field of Vision
13.4 Contrast Sensitivity
13.5 Light Sensitivity
13.6 Colour Vision
13.7 Double Vision
Chapter 14 - Impairment of Hearing Functions
14.1 Hearing functions
14.4 Hearing Impairment
Chapter 15 – Impairment of Amputations
15.1 Guidelines for Assigning Impairment 15.2 Upper Extremity Amputations 15.3 Lower Extremity Amputations
Chapter 16 - Impairment of Congenital Skeletal Limb Deficiencies
16.1 Frantz and O’Rahilly classification 16.2 ISPO classification 16.3 Impairment
Chapter 17 – Impairment: Dwarfism, Disfigurement, Deformities, and Shortening
17.1 Dwarfism/Short Stature
17.2 Disfigurement and Deformities
17.3 Shortening of Extremity
Chapter 18 – Impairment: Burns
18.1 Functions of the Skin 18.2 Burns: Definition, Causes, Classification, and Sequel 18.3 Impairment of Structure and Functions following Burns
Chapter 19 - Intellectual Disability/Mental Retardation
19.1 Intellectual Function
19.2 Adaptive Skills 19.3 Intellectual Disability/Mental Retardation
Chapter 20 – Activity and Participation
20.3 Activity-Participation Skill Assessment Scale
Chapter 21 – Environmental Factors
21.1 Environmental Factors 21.2 Environmental Factors Measurement Scale
Chapter 22 – Personal Factors
22.1 Personal Factors and Personal Factors Measuring Scale
22.2 Working and Earning Capacity and Measurement Scale
Chapter 23 – Ready Reckoner Impairment Table
Ramar Sabapathi Vinayagam, MD, in 1973, obtained a medical degree from Madurai University, India, and he also trained in physical medicine and rehabilitation at the University of Madras. After working as a tutor, assistant professor, and additional professor, he became the professor and head of the Institution of Government Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine, Madras Medical College, Chennai in 2001. He assumed the position of General Secretary from 1994–1999, and was vice president of the Indian Association of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2000–2002. Subsequently, he worked as a consultant 2002–2011, and was the chairman of the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2011–2012 in the Ministry of Health of Kuwait.
Dr. Ramar has more than 40 years of clinical experience with skills in electrodiagnostic studies, which includes electromyography and nerve conduction studies, and pain management including interventional pain management for peripheral joints, rehabilitation of stroke, rehabilitation of persons with spinal cord injury and amputation, and disability evaluation.
Dr. Ramar has served as a postgraduate teacher in physical medicine and rehabilitation; chairman, Board of Studies School of Physiotherapy, The Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical University, Chennai; postgraduate examiner in physical medicine and rehabilitation for universities in India and the National Board of Examinations, New Delhi. He has served as coordinator on the accreditation committee for the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Hospital, Ministry of Health, Kuwait; and as chairman of the Committee on Disability Evaluation, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Hospital, Ministry of Health, Kuwait. He has served as a resource person in WHO expert group committees and participated in the Delphi Process from India for the WHO Collaborative Project with Munich University, Germany on ICF—International Classification of Functioning in Disability and Health 2000.
He has received numerous awards and honors, including the DHADHIJI Award in 1997 from the Indian Association of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. In 1993, he wrote the book Objective Evaluation of Impairment and Ability in Locomotor Handicapped; and in 2001, he authored a chapter in the book Neurorehabilitation Principles and Practice (Second Edition).
Featured Author Profiles
"While hardly easy to summarize or review, I loved this book and am confident I will make extensive use of not only its principles, but its fresh approach to a complex topic."
John T. Pierce, MBBS(MD) PhD (Navy Environmental Health Center)
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